This chapter examines the causes, frequencies, and distinct and cumulative impacts of natural disturbances on both geographical and ecological space of Luquillo. It discusses the traditional scheme of quantifying effects of disturbances on a landform geomorphology and ecology by considering these factors: disturbance type, force intensity, ecosystem component, spatial extent of impact, frequency of the event, resistance of the ecosystem, and resilience of the system. It also covers the definition and types of mortality processes occurring over many spatial scales.
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