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Functional Morphology and Diversity$
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Les Watling and Martin Thiel

Print publication date: 2013

Print ISBN-13: 9780195398038

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: May 2015

DOI: 10.1093/acprof:osobl/9780195398038.001.0001

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Appendage Diversity and Modes of Locomotion

Appendage Diversity and Modes of Locomotion

Swimming at Intermediate Reynolds Numbers

(p.296) 11 Appendage Diversity and Modes of Locomotion
Functional Morphology and Diversity

Jeannette Yen

Oxford University Press

This contribution provides an overview of morphological adaptations found in copepods and other small crustaceans that swim in the water column. At their size (predominantly <1 to 10 mm), the viscosity of water greatly influences crustacean morphology and behavior. An examination of the functional morphology of locomotory appendages of aquatic microcrustaceans reveals adaptations to achieve efficient performance while swimming at the interface between laminar and turbulent regimes. The biologically generated flows caused by the motion of locomotory appendages of copepods also have different uses: the anterior flow field serves as a feeding and sensory current, while the posterior wake provides thrust. Information about size, speed, location, and identity can be discerned by studying the dynamics of these fluid deformations. This chapter discusses behavioral constraints (and benefits) imposed by life in a viscous medium. Morphological adaptations in small planktonic crustaceans are compared.

Keywords:   crustaceans, copepods, morphology, adaptation, swimming, appendages, locomotion

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