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Advances in Culture and Psychology$
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Michele J. Gelfand, Chi-yue Chiu, and Ying-yi Hong

Print publication date: 2013

Print ISBN-13: 9780199336715

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: March 2015

DOI: 10.1093/acprof:osobl/9780199336715.001.0001

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PRINTED FROM OXFORD SCHOLARSHIP ONLINE (oxford.universitypressscholarship.com). (c) Copyright Oxford University Press, 2021. All Rights Reserved. An individual user may print out a PDF of a single chapter of a monograph in OSO for personal use. date: 03 December 2021

What Values Can (and Cannot) Tell Us About Individuals, Society, and Culture

What Values Can (and Cannot) Tell Us About Individuals, Society, and Culture

(p.218) Chapter 5 What Values Can (and Cannot) Tell Us About Individuals, Society, and Culture
Advances in Culture and Psychology

Ronald Fischer

Oxford University Press

This chapter discusses value processes operating at individual and country-level. First, it reviews evidence that individual-level values are more clearly organized in economically advanced societies, suggesting qualitative differences in values due to economic opportunities for growth and self-expression. It highlights how these processes have implications for correlations with third variables (e.g. attitudes & behaviours) and suggests new methods for investigating these contextual influences. Moving to the link between individual and country-level values, available evidence suggests that values are widely shared among individuals in modern societies, while not demonstrating large cultural differences. This raises questions about apparent differences in value structures between the individual and country level (lack of isomorphism). The chapter discusses methodological and conceptual reasons why values may appear different at the country compared with the individual level. Integrating research on equivalence at the individual level with multi-level questions about isomorphism, it proposes two new hypotheses (motivational and institutional value differentiation).

Keywords:   values, human development model, equivalence, isomorphism, multilevel, universality, economic development, individual and country level, contextual influences

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