The subfamily Ceroxyloideae exhibits an unusually large amount of structural diversity for a clade that contains but eight genera distributed among three tribes. Like its sister group Arecoideae, Ceroxyloideae are characterized by their reduplicate pinnate leaves and in having relatively inconspicuous bracts subtending the primary branches of the inflorescence. From both an anatomical and morphological perspective, Ceroxyloideae are without any unique synapomorphies. However, character analysis optimizes the presence of adaxial subepidermal fibres as a synapomorphy for the subfamily, with a subsequent loss of these fibres within Ceroxyleae. This chapter discusses the anatomical features of the tribes Cyclospatheae, Ceroxyleae, and Phytelepheae.
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