This chapter examines how and why parties have retained their predominant position within democracies in the face of so many predictions of their imminent demise. It argues that while there is evidence for party decline, there is at least as much evidence of party adaptation. The first section reviews the study' s broad findings, with particular reference to their implications for the party government model. The second section focuses on party adaptation and examines how, and in what ways, parties have adapted to the changing circumstances in which they find themselves. The third section outlines the mechanisms through which parties have maintained their dominance, from institutional design to organizational change. The final section covers the unanticipated threats that can emerge to damage parties that, by definition, they have difficulty adapting to.
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