This section explores the ancient traditions of grammar and rhetoric as the foundations of language curricula between ca. 300 and ca. 950. It outlines each discipline and examines their foundational texts from late antiquity and early medieval developments (up to about 1100), including Terentianus Maurus's treatises De litteris and De syllabis, Aelius Donatus's handbooks Ars minor and Ars maior, and commentaries by Marius Victorinus and Servius. It also considers two examples of the literary, or form-conscious, dimensions of grammatical teaching: the Epistola and Epitome of Virgilius Maro grammaticus and Bede's De arte metrica (Metrical Art or Art of Poetry) and De schematibus et tropis.
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