This section focuses on professional, civic, and scholastic approaches to the language arts that were developed between ca. 1225 and ca. 1272. More specifically, it discusses the emergence of a practical, cultural purpose for the language arts: to produce elegant and correct expression and rational argumentation. It also considers the implications of these developments for the study of grammar and rhetoric in the university curricula and in the professionalised environments of the Italian schools, as well as for the artes poetriae whose sphere of influence was largely the grammar school. Finally, it examines the conflict between traditional bellettristic grammar and the new logic in the French schools, along with the impact of Aristotle's Rhetoric that appeared in the second half of the thirteenth century.
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