This chapter examines the criticism that the secularisation paradigm for explaining the decline of religion in the West overlooks important signs of religious interest outside the churches. It also considers other less far-reaching challenges and uses those criticisms to clarify what is entailed by the secularisation paradigm. These criticisms include the notion that the decline of religion was inevitable, along with arguments related to partisanship, teleology, and politics versus sociology. The chapter also discusses social historian Callum Brown's explanation of the abrupt decline of Christian churches in Britain from the late 1950s, the generational roots of church decline, and the effect of World War II.
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