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Indian Philosophy in EnglishFrom Renaissance to Independence$
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Nalini Bhushan and Jay L. Garfield

Print publication date: 2011

Print ISBN-13: 9780199769261

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: May 2015

DOI: 10.1093/acprof:osobl/9780199769261.001.0001

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R. D. Ranade, “The Problem of Ultimate Reality in the Upanishads” (1926)

R. D. Ranade, “The Problem of Ultimate Reality in the Upanishads” (1926)

(p.245) 1 R. D. Ranade, “The Problem of Ultimate Reality in the Upanishads” (1926)
Indian Philosophy in English

Nalini Bhushan

Jay L. Garfield

Oxford University Press

This chapter presents an excerpt from Ramchandra Dattatraya Ranade's book, Constructive Survey of Upanisadic Philosophy (1926), in which he emphasizes the centrality of a psychological approach, as opposed to a theological approach, to understanding ultimate reality. Ranade was Professor of Philosophy at the University of Allahabad. He specialized initially in classical Greek philosophy, with special attention to the pre-Socratics, but was also an eminent scholar of the Upanisads. His Constructive Survey of Upanisadic Philosophy is widely regarded as a classic in the field. In the chapter “The Problem of Ultimate Reality in the Upanishads,” Ranade explores what he calls the supreme philosophical problem: What, if any, is the core of Upanisadic teaching? He also considers the three approaches to this problem in the history of thought—cosmological, theological, and psychological; the cosmological argument for the existence of God; regress from polytheism to monotheism under the theological approach; and the epistemology and metaphysics of self-consciousness.

Keywords:   reality, Ramchandra Dattatraya Ranade, Constructive Survey of Upanisadic Philosophy, Upanishads, God, polytheism, monotheism, epistemology, metaphysics, self-consciousness

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