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American While BlackAfrican Americans, Immigration, and the Limits of Citizenship$

Niambi Michele Carter

Print publication date: 2019

Print ISBN-13: 9780190053550

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: September 2019

DOI: 10.1093/oso/9780190053550.001.0001

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(p.175) Appendix B Race and Nation Survey

(p.175) Appendix B Race and Nation Survey

Source:
American While Black
Author(s):

Niambi Michele Carter

Publisher:
Oxford University Press

I. Let’s begin with some statements about people’s mentality in general and yourself. Please tell me whether you think these statements are true or false. [SELF-ESTEEM]

  1. 1. When in a group of people, I usually do what others want, rather than make suggestions.

    • 1) true 2) false 3) don’t know

  2. 2. I certainly feel useless at times.

    • 1) true 2) false 3) don’t know

II. Next, I’m going to make some statements about U.S. society. After each one, please tell me, on a scale of 1 to 4, whether you agree or disagree with it. A score of 1 means you strongly disagree, and a score of 4 means you strongly agree.

[RANDOMIZE ORDER OF ITEMS]

  1. 3. The job prospects of Americans are getting worse.

    1. 1) strongly disagree

    2. 2) somewhat disagree

    3. 3) somewhat agree

    4. 4) strongly agree

    5. 8) don’t know

  2. 4. American culture is increasingly endangered.

    1. 1) strongly disagree

    2. 2) somewhat disagree

    3. 3) somewhat agree

    4. 4) strongly agree

    5. 8) don’t know

(p.176) [RANDOMIZE ORDER OF BATTERIES DENOTED BY ROMAN NUMERALS IV—VII]

[RANDOMIZE ORDER OF RACIAL ID AND AMERICAN ID ITEMS WITHIN THE FOLLOWING BATTERY]

III. Now I have a few questions about some social groups you may identify with. These are questions about people who may be like you in their ideas and interests and feelings about things. [RACIAL ID ACCORDING TO RACE OF R].

  1. 5. How close do you feel to other [Blacks/Whites]?

    1. 1) not close at all

    2. 2) not very close

    3. 3) somewhat close

    4. 4) very close

    5. 8) don’t know

  2. 6. Do you think what happens generally to [Black/White] people in this country will have something to do with what happens in your life?

    1. 1) strongly disagree

    2. 2) somewhat disagree

    3. 3) somewhat agree

    4. 4) strongly agree

    5. 8) don’t know

  3. 7. Do you think what happens generally to [Black/White] women in this country will have something to do with what happens in your life? [REVERSE RESPONSE CATEGORIES]

    1. 1) strongly disagree

    2. 2) somewhat disagree

    3. 3) somewhat agree

    4. 4) strongly agree

    5. 8) don’t know

  4. 8. Do you think what happens generally to [Black/White] men in this country will have something to do with what happens in your life? [REVERSE RESPONSE CATEGORIES]

    1. 1) strongly disagree

    2. 2) somewhat disagree

    3. 3) somewhat agree

    4. 4) strongly agree

    5. 8) don’t know

[AMERICAN ID]

(p.177)

  1. 9. How close do you feel to other Americans?

    1. 1) not close at all

    2. 2) not very close

    3. 3) somewhat close

    4. 4) very close

    5. 8) don’t know

  2. 10. To what extent do you see yourself as a typical American?

    1. 1) very typical

    2. 2) somewhat typical

    3. 3) not very typical

    4. 4) not typical at all

    5. 8) don’t know

  3. 11. When talking about Americans, how often do you say “we” instead of “they”?

    1. 1) not often at all

    2. 2) not very often

    3. 3) somewhat often

    4. 4) very often

    5. 8) don’t know

IV. Now I want to ask you about some things which may or may not make a person feel proud about the United States. After reading each statement, please tell me, on a scale of 1 to 4, whether it makes you proud. A score of 1 means the item does not make you feel proud of America at all, and a score of 4 means the item makes you feel very proud of America.

[PATRIOTISM]

  1. 12. The way democracy works in the U.S.

    1. 1) not proud at all

    2. 2) not very proud

    3. 3) somewhat proud

    4. 4) very proud

    5. 8) don’t know

  2. 13. America’s economic achievements.

    1. 1) not proud at all

    2. 2) not very proud

    3. 3) somewhat proud

    4. 4) very proud

    5. 8) don’t know

  3. (p.178) 14. America’s history.

    1. 1) not proud at all

    2. 2) not very proud

    3. 3) somewhat proud

    4. 4) very proud

    5. 8) don’t know

V. Now I want to ask you about your views about the United States in relation to other nations. After reading each question, please tell me, on a scale of 1 to 4, whether you agree or disagree. A score of 1 means you strongly disagree and a score of 4 means you strongly agree.

[NATIONALISM]

  1. 15. The world would be a better place if people from other countries were more like Americans.

    1. 1) strongly disagree

    2. 2) somewhat disagree

    3. 3) somewhat agree

    4. 4) strongly agree

    5. 8) don’t know

  2. 16. Generally speaking, America is no better than most other countries.

    1. 1) strongly disagree

    2. 2) somewhat disagree

    3. 3) somewhat agree

    4. 4) strongly agree

    5. 8) don’t know

  3. 17. Generally, the more influence America has on other nations, the better off they are.

    1. 1) strongly disagree

    2. 2) somewhat disagree

    3. 3) somewhat agree

    4. 4) strongly agree

    5. 8) don’t know

VI. Now I want to ask you some questions about what it means to be an American. Some people say the following things make somebody an American. Others say these things don’t necessarily make somebody an American. For each item, please tell me whether you agree or disagree that it makes somebody an American.

[NATIVISM]

(p.179)

  1. 18. To have been born in America.

    1. 1) strongly disagree

    2. 2) somewhat disagree

    3. 3) somewhat agree

    4. 4) strongly agree

    5. 8) don’t know

  2. 19. To be a Christian.

    1. 1) strongly agree

    2. 2) somewhat agree

    3. 3) somewhat disagree

    4. 4) strongly disagree

    5. 8) don’t know

  3. 20. To have lived in America for most of one’s life.

    1. 1) strongly disagree

    2. 2) somewhat disagree

    3. 3) somewhat agree

    4. 4) strongly agree

    5. 8) don’t know

  4. 21. To be able to speak English.

    1. 1) strongly agree

    2. 2) somewhat agree

    3. 3) somewhat disagree

    4. 4) strongly disagree

    5. 8) don’t know

VII. The following are pairs of qualities that one might try to encourage in children. As you read each one, please indicate which one you think is more important to encourage in a child.

[AUTHORITIARIANISM]

  1. 22. If you absolutely had to choose, would you say it is more important that a child obey his parents or that he is responsible for his own actions?

    1. 1) obey parents

    2. 2) responsible for own actions

    3. 3) both equally important

    4. 4) don’t know

  2. (p.180) 23. Is it more important that a child has respect for his elders, or that he thinks for himself?

    1. 1) respect elders

    2. 2) thinks for himself

    3. 3) both equally important

    4. 4) don’t know

  3. 24. Is it more important that a child follows his own conscience, or that he follows the rules?

    1. 1) follow own conscience

    2. 2) follow the rules

    3. 3) both equally important

    4. 4) don’t know

VIII. Before moving on, please tell me how important the following things are to you.

[ATTITUDE IMPORTANCE—MODERATORS]

  1. 25. How important to you is it to identify with other [Black Americans/Whites][ACCORDING TO RACE OF R]?

    1. 1) not important at all

    2. 2) not very important

    3. 3) somewhat important

    4. 4) very important

    5. 8) don’t know

  2. 26. How important to you is it to identify with other Americans?

    1. 1) very important

    2. 2) somewhat important

    3. 3) not very important

    4. 4) not important at all

    5. 8) don’t know

  3. 27. How important to you is it to feel proud of the United States?

    1. 1) not important at all

    2. 2) not very important

    3. 3) somewhat important

    4. 4) very important

    5. 8) don’t know

  4. (p.181) 28. How important to you is it for the United States to be a better nation than other countries?

    1. 1) very important

    2. 2) somewhat important

    3. 3) not very important

    4. 4) not important at all

    5. 8) don’t know

  5. 29. How important to you is it to have been born in America?

    1. 1) not important at all

    2. 2) not very important

    3. 3) somewhat important

    4. 4) very important

    5. 8) don’t know

  6. 30. How important to you is the issue of legal immigration?

    1. 1) very important

    2. 2) somewhat important

    3. 3) not very important

    4. 4) not important at all

    5. 8) don’t know

  7. 31. How important to you is the issue of illegal immigration?

    1. 1) Not important at all

    2. 2) Not very important

    3. 3) Somewhat important

    4. 4) Very important

IX. Now I have some questions about your views regarding discrimination in the United States.

  1. 32. How often are you personally a victim of racial discrimination in your life?

    1. 1) Not often at all

    2. 2) Not very often

    3. 3) Somewhat often

    4. 4) Very often

  2. 33. Which of the following groups do you think experiences the most racial discrimination?

[ROTATE ORDER]

    1. 1) Blacks

    2. 2) Whites

    3. (p.182) 3) Latinos

    4. 4) Asians

    5. 5) Native Americans

    6. 6) Other

    7. 7) Don’t know

  1. 34. In your opinion, [INSERT R’S RACIAL GROUP] get along best with:

[insert all groups from previous question except for R'S group]

X. The following is a question about the government in Washington, D.C. Please fill in the answer in the blank provided. Many people don’t know the answer to this question, so if you don’t know, just leave it blank and move on.

  1. 35. How long is the term of office for a U.S. Senator?

XI. Now I want to ask you a different set of questions. [Legal Experiment]

Control: No Information Provided

Treatment 2—Legal Latino: Our country is often thought of as nation of immigrants, which explains why so many legal immigrants continue to come to our nation. Currently, many of these legal immigrants are Latino. Some Americans believe that there are already too many legal Latino immigrants in our nation. These individuals believe that we should reduce the number of legal Latino immigrants to avoid overcrowding in our local schools and neighborhoods. Other Americans, though, believe that the current level of legal Latino immigration is just fine and should not be tinkered with. These Americans believe that we should continue to allow the same number of legal Latino immigrants as we have in the past.

Treatment 2—Legal Asian: Our country is often thought of as nation of immigrants, which explains why so many legal immigrants continue to come to our nation. Currently, many of these legal immigrants are Asian. Some Americans believe that there are already too many legal Asian immigrants in our nation. These individuals believe that we should reduce the number of legal Asian immigrants to avoid overcrowding in our local schools and neighborhoods. Other Americans, though, believe that the current level of legal Asian immigration is just fine and should not be tinkered with. These Americans believe that we should continue to allow the same number of legal Asian immigrants as we have in the past.

Treatment 3—Legal African: Our country is often thought of as nation of immigrants, which explains why so many legal immigrants continue to come to our nation. Currently, many of these legal immigrants are African. Some Americans believe that there are already too many legal African immigrants in our nation. These individuals believe that we should reduce the number of legal African immigrants to avoid overcrowding in our local schools and neighborhoods. Other Americans, though, believe that the current level of legal African immigration is just fine and (p.183) should not be tinkered with. These Americans believe that we should continue to allow the same number of legal African immigrants as we have in the past.

  1. 36. Do you think the United States should increase the number of years legal immigrants wait to become eligible for citizenship?

    1. 1) strongly agree

    2. 2) somewhat agree

    3. 3) somewhat disagree

    4. 4) strongly disagree

    5. 8) don’t know

  2. 37. Do you think the United States should decrease the annual number of legal immigrants?

    1. 1) strongly disagree

    2. 2) somewhat disagree

    3. 3) somewhat agree

    4. 4) strongly agree

    5. 8) don’t know

  3. 38. You can make your voice heard on the issue of legal immigration by joining other people in signing a public letter to Congress urging them to pay more attention to this political issue. The letter will only include your name, city and state of residence, and your stated support for Congress to decrease the annual number of legal immigrants admitted each year to the United States.

    Do you want to add your name to this public letter to Congress concerning legal immigration?

    1. 1) Yes

    2. 2) No

XII. Now I want to ask you a question about a prominent political figure and what their role in government is. Please fill in the answer in the blank provided. If you don’t know the answer to this question, just leave it blank and move on.

  1. 39. What job or political office does John Roberts now hold?

XIII. Now I want to ask you a different set of questions [ILLEGAL EXPERIMENT].

Control: No Information Provided

Treatment 1—Illegal Latino: A large number of Latino immigrants have found it relatively easy to enter our country undetected. This ease of movement has permitted many of these undocumented Latino immigrants to settle and find jobs in our nation. Some Americans believe that undocumented immigration is beneficial to our economy because it supplies labor that employers demand. Other Americans (p.184) believe, however, that the unchecked flow of illegal immigrants into our country leads to more problems than benefits, such as an increase in crime.

Treatment 2—Illegal Asian: A large number of Asian immigrants have found it relatively easy to enter our country undetected. This ease of movement has permitted many of these undocumented Asian immigrants to settle and find jobs in our nation. Some Americans believe that undocumented immigration is beneficial to our economy because it supplies labor that employers demand. Other Americans believe, however, that the unchecked flow of illegal immigrants into our country leads to more problems than benefits, such as an increase in crime.

  1. 40. Do you think the U.S. should allow unauthorized immigrants to gain citizenship if they pass background checks, pay fines, and have jobs?

    1. 1) strongly agree

    2. 2) somewhat agree

    3. 3) somewhat disagree

    4. 4) strongly disagree

    5. 8) don’t know

  2. 41. Do you think U.S. immigration authorities should increase their efforts to curb the flow of illegal immigration?

    1. 1) strongly disagree

    2. 2) somewhat disagree

    3. 3) somewhat agree

    4. 4) strongly agree

    5. 8) don’t know

  3. 42. Make your voice heard on the issue of illegal immigration by joining other people in signing a public letter to Congress urging them to pay more careful attention to this political issue. The letter will only include your name, city and state of residence, and your stated support for Congress to prevent undocumented immigrants from gaining citizenship, even if they pass background checks, pay fines and have jobs.

    Do you want to add your name to this public letter to Congress concerning undocumented immigration?

    1. 1) Yes

    2. 2) No

XIV. Now I’d like to get your feelings toward some political figures and social groups that have been in the news these days. Using what is called a feeling thermometer, I want you to rate how you feel toward each group or individual. Ratings between 0 and 49 mean that you feel unfavorable or cool toward the group or individual. Ratings from 51 to 100 mean that you feel favorable or warm toward the group or (p.185) individual. You can rate the group or individual at the 50 degree mark if you don’t feel warm or cool toward them.

[RANDOMIZE ORDER OF ITEMS]

  1. 43. Democrats

    • 0 to 49 = unfavorable toward them; 50 = neutral; 51 to 100 = favorable toward them

  2. 44. Republicans

    • 0 to 49 = unfavorable toward them; 50 = neutral; 51 to 100 = favorable toward them

  3. 45. Latino Immigrants

    • 0 to 49 = unfavorable toward them; 50 = neutral; 51 to 100 = favorable toward them

  4. 46. Barack Obama

    • 0 to 49 = unfavorable toward them; 50 = neutral; 51 to 100 = favorable toward them

  5. 47. Asian Immigrants

    • 0 to 49 = unfavorable toward them; 50 = neutral; 51 to 100 = favorable toward them

  6. 48. White Immigrants

    • 0 to 49 = unfavorable toward them; 50 = neutral; 51 to 100 = favorable toward them

  7. 49. John McCain

    • 0 to 49 = unfavorable toward them; 50 = neutral; 51 to 100 = favorable toward them

  8. 50. African Immigrants

    • 0 to 49 = unfavorable toward them; 50 = neutral; 51 to 100 = favorable toward them

[SURVEY SHOULD SAMPLE U.S. BORN AFRICAN AMERICANS AND WHITE AMERICANS, 18 AND OVER].

[SURVEY DOESN’T CONTAIN POLIMETRIX’S STANDARD DEMOGRAPHIC ITEMS] (p.186)