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American While BlackAfrican Americans, Immigration, and the Limits of Citizenship$

Niambi Michele Carter

Print publication date: 2019

Print ISBN-13: 9780190053550

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: September 2019

DOI: 10.1093/oso/9780190053550.001.0001

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PRINTED FROM OXFORD SCHOLARSHIP ONLINE (oxford.universitypressscholarship.com). (c) Copyright Oxford University Press, 2020. All Rights Reserved. An individual user may print out a PDF of a single chapter of a monograph in OSO for personal use. date: 25 October 2020

(p.267) Index

(p.267) Index

Source:
American While Black
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

Tables and map are indicated by an italic t and m, respectively, following the page number.

For the benefit of digital users, indexed terms that span two pages (e.g., 52–53) may, on occasion, appear on only one of those pages.

12 Years a Slave (Northup), 83–84
14th Amendment, 48–49, 54, 142
Abrams, Stacey, 18–19
African Civilization Society, 86–87
African colonization movement, 68–95. See also emigration, for black liberation (1815–1862)
African immigrants, black attitudes toward, 152–53, 152t, 160
Allport, Gordon Willard, 3–4
American. See also specific topics
being black and, 166–67
typical, 137–38, 149–50, 150t, 152
American Colonization Society
black counterpublic, 78
black rejection, 78–80
colonization support, 75
Delany on, 83–85, 93
emigration, convincing blacks, 76–77
emigration, framing black “Americanness” and, 87
federal support, 76–77
Jefferson, Thomas, 74, 75–76
as racist, 87–88
slaveholder founders, 75–76
white supremacy, 88
American culture, 137–38, 141, 148, 149–50, 150t, 151–52, 159
American identity, 163–64. See also national identity
race and racism, 24, 41–42
as white, 16–17
white supremacy, 13–14, 16–17
American identity, black public opinion and, 21st century, 162–72
being black and American, 166
black ambivalence and immigration politics, 163
future issues, 169
on open borders, 162
white supremacy on, 162
Americanness, framing black, emigration and, 87
Asian immigrants and Asian Americans
assimilation, 128, 130
(p.268) blacks and, animosities, 136–37
blacks and, criticism of, 38–39
blacks and, expressed warmth and relations, 152–53, 152t, 153t
citizenship, 32–33, 48–49
demographics, 25
exclusion, in Americanness, 48–49
Johnson-Reed Act on, 141
minority politics, 25
vs. native stock, 141
Proposition 187, 50–51, 139–40
in racial hierarchy, 16–17, 63–64, 98–130
white foreigner status vs., 16–17
assimilation, Asians, 128, 130
Assman, Jan, 116–17
attachment, national, 40–41, 45–46, 65–66
of blacks, 136
national pride, 147, 149, 150t, 151, 159
Banaji, Mahzarin R., 16–17
barriers, racial, to black inclusion, 13
Bashi, Vilna, 62–63
Behind the Mule (Dawson), 116
Bell, Dill, 108
belonging, politics of, 162–63
Betancur, John, 27–28
bilingual education, Proposition 227, 139–40
black(s). See also specific topics
being black and American, 166
body politic, theorizing, 24
counterpublic, American Colonization Society, 78
on family separation, 170
liberation, emigration for (1815–1862), 68–95 (See also emigration, for black liberation (1815–1862))
progress, racial retrenchment and, 96–97
Black, MaryAnn, 108–9
black–immigrant relations. See also specific immigrant groups
history, 8–10
intolerant black imagery, 11
Los Angeles Rebellion of 1992, 8–9
misinterpretation, 10–11
blackness, 126–27
feared and criminal, 121, 122
inclusivity, extreme, 157
Latinos vs., 127–28
non-whites, all, 129–30
notion, 127–28
racial hierarchy, 157–58
black public opinion
on “black issues,” 162
collective memory, 113
on open borders, 154, 162
black public opinion, American identity in 21st century, 162–72. See also American identity, black public opinion and, 21st century
black/white. See also white supremacy; specific topics
racial paradigm, 25–26, 27–28, 33
relations, black attitudes on immigration, 14
Blalock, Hubert, 31
borders
open, blacks on, 154, 162
protection, 41–42
Borjas, George J., 14–15
Bradley, Tom, mayoral election, 29–30
Brotherhood of Sleeping Porters, 43–44
Brotz, Howard, 83, 84–85, 86, 87, 88–89
Brown v. Board of Education, 105–6
(p.269) Camp, Abraham, 74–75
Canada, black emigration to, 81–82, 84–85
Catholic Church, discrimination against, 45–46
Chinese Exclusion Act, 14–15, 44–45, 55–56, 154
Chinese laborers in Mississippi, as anti-black mobilization, 40
citizenship
Asian Americans, 32–33, 48–49
black, 14th Amendment, 48–49, 54, 142
black, “twoness,” 51
black emigration for black liberation and, 69–70
conflicted nativism, 66
exclusion with, 110
ideals as, 68–69
race and, 48
rights, disaffirming black, 17–18
whiteness and white requirement, 16–17, 62–63
civil rights
black, denial, 54 (See also specific types)
black, immigration on, 38
enforcement issues, 18–19
Malcolm X, “Ballot or the Bullet,” 18–19
movement, 37–38
state restrictions, 18–20
Civil Rights Act of 1964, 37–38, 115–16
coalition theories, interminority politics, 28–31, 32–33, 35–36
collective memory, 110–11
black attitude formation, 20
black public opinion, 113
of past, on blacks’ present feelings about immigrants, 113
racial hierarchy, 96–97
colonization. See also American Colonization Society
American Colonization Society, black counterpublic and, 78
American Colonization Society, white support, 75
as forced removal of blacks, 92–93
Jefferson on, 74, 75–76
“Negro problem” and, 73
pre-Dred Scott, 72–73
Walker, David, 74–76
colorblindness, 33
comparative racial progress, 120
compassion for Hispanics and immigrants, vs. blacks, 131–32
competition, interminority relations, 28, 30–32, 35–36
Compton, Latino/black relationships, 31–32
Condition, Elevation, Emigration and Destiny of the Colored People of the United States, The (Delany), 83–85
conflicted nativism, 5–6, 23, 34–35, 37–67. See also specific topics
black ambivalence and immigration politics, 163
blacks as Americans, insecure, 48
blacks as Americans, not valued, 37
Chinese laborers in Mississippi, as anti-black mobilization, 40
citizenship, 66
citizenship, black, “twoness” of, 51
citizenship, race and, 48
civil rights movement, 37–38
concept, 59
definition, 59, 65
dimensions, 60, 65–66
European immigration, 38
immigrants, empathy vs. assistance, 61–62
immigration, black opinion, 37–38, 40–41, 42–44
immigration, demographics and white fragility, 42
(p.270) Immigration and Naturalization Act, 37–38, 154
immigration policies, blacks on, 38–39, 137, 154, 155t
inclusion, leveraging for, 66
Japanese immigration, 38–39, 53–54, 141
nativism and national identity, 44
political participation, 61
pro-immigrant vs. anti-immigration, 164
Washington, Booker T., 39–40
white racism on, 62
whites favoring white immigrants vs. blacks, 42–44
conflicted nativism, empirical view, 136–61
data and methods, 146
determinants, 148t, 149, 150t
determinants, American culture, 137–38, 141, 148, 149–50, 150t, 151–52, 159
determinants, black discrimination, 147, 149, 150t, 151–52
determinants, job prospects, 149, 150t, 151–52, 160–61
determinants, linked fate, 149–51, 150t, 159
determinants, national pride, 147, 149, 150t, 151, 159
determinants, typical American, 137–38, 149–50, 150t, 152
dimensions, 60, 65–66
discussion, 153t, 156
immigrants, attitudes toward, 152, 152t, 153t
immigration, blacks and contemporary, 144
immigration, policy, 38–39, 137, 154, 155t
immigration, race and, 137
Johnson-Reed Act, 140–41, 142–43, 156–57
nativism, defined, 147
Proposition 187, 138–39
Proposition 227, 138–40
testing, 147
white supremacy, on black status, 142–43
Contested Murder of Latasha Harlins: Justice, Gender, and the Origins of the LA Riots (Stevenson), 8–9
Cuffee, Paul, 72–74
cultural memory, 116–17
culture
American, conflicted nativism, 137–38, 141, 148, 149–50, 150t, 151–52, 159
black nativism, 64
discrimination, 64
signifiers, 64
Czaplicka, John, 116–17
Dawson, Michael C., Behind the Mule, 116
Delany, Martin
Condition, Elevation, Emigration and Destiny of the Colored People of the United States, The, 83–85
Political Destiny of the Colored People Race on the American Continent, The, 93
demographic changes
immigration in, 25–26
majority-minority state, 42
urban, 28
white vs. other populations, 42
desegregation, school, Durham, NC, 105–9
Devos, Thierry, 16–17
direct democracy, 138–39
discrimination. See also racism; specific topics
black, conflicted nativism, 147, 149, 150t, 151–52
culture and, 64
Durham, North Carolina, 98–99
(p.271) disenfranchisement, 117–18
Douglass, Frederick, 20–21, 52, 88–89
Dred Scott v. Sandford, 48–49, 71–72
DuBois, W.E.B., 22–23, 73
on African immigrants, 142–43
on duality, 22–23
on labor, immigrant vs. black, 156–57
Souls of Black Folk, The, 51–52
“The Shape of Fear,” 16–17
on white supremacy, 142–43
Durham, North Carolina, 8. See also race, (re)remembering
black business community, 101
black middle class, 98
black progress and racial retrenchment, 97
collective memory, 110–11
discrimination and prejudice, 98–99
Durham Committee on Negro Affairs, 105
factory work, 98, 99–100
Jim Crow, challenging, 102
map, 99
memories, 110
methods, 111
schools, integration and desegregation, 105–9
segregation, 98–99, 100–2
sexual harassment, workplace, 100
tobacco, present-day, 98, 99–100
tobacco, slavery legacy, 97
voter registration, 105
Wheeler et al. v. The Durham City Board of Education, 106–7
Durham Committee on Negro Affairs, 105
education
school desegregation, Durham, NC, 105–9
“separate but equal,” 101–2
elevation, emigration and, 83
Emergency Immigration Act of 1921, 158
Emergency Quota Act of 1921, 142–43
emigration, black, 15–16
emigration, for black liberation (1815–1862), 68–95
African Civilization Society, 86–87
African colonization movement, 68–69
American Colonization Society, black counterpublic, 78
becoming emigrants, 71
black opposition, 78–80, 88, 93
to Canada, 81–82, 84–85
for Christianization of Africa, 85–86
colonization, as forced removal of blacks, 92–93
colonization, pre-Dred Scott, 72–73
convincing blacks to emigrate, 76–77
Cuffee, Paul, 72–74
Delany, Martin, 83–85, 93
elevation and, 83
federal support, 76–77
framing black “Americanness,” 87
Garnet, Henry Highland, 85–86
to Haiti, 72–73, 85
Holly, T., 85–86
identifying and citizenship, novel ways, 69–70
Jefferson, Thomas, 74, 75–76
to Liberia, 80, 84, 91, 188n.4, 199200n.16
Lincoln, Abraham, 68–69, 89–91
to Mexico, 84–85
“Negro problem,” 78
“Negro problem,” colonization and, 73
racial climate and, 80–81
self-determination, African American immigration as, 70–71
statelessness, 68–69
supporters, early, 73–75
English as a Second Language (ESL), Proposition 227, 139–40
(p.272) exclusion. See also specific topics
black, 62–63
Chinese, blacks on, 14–15
Chinese Exclusion Act, 14–15, 44–45, 55–56, 154
citizenship with, 110
Dred Scott v. Sandford, 48–49, 71–72
Emergency Immigration Act of 1921, 158
Emergency Quota Act of 1921, 142–43
immigrant, black exclusion and, 38
immigrant, black opinion on, 38, 42–43
immigrant, Japanese, as racism, 38–39, 53–54, 141
Immigration Act of 1924, 55–56
Immigration Reform and Control Act of 1986, 158
Johnson-Reed Act, 140–41, 142–43, 156–57
National Origins Quota Act, 44–45
Naturalization Act of 1790, 50, 154
of people of color, 20th c. blacks on, 57
race and citizenship, 48
family separation, 170
fate, linked, 149–51, 150t, 159
feeling thermometers, blacks on immigrants, 152, 152t, 153t
14th Amendment, 48–49, 54, 142
Fugitive Slave Act of 1850, 83–84
Garnet, Henry Highland, 85–86, 88–89
Garvey, Marcus, 70
Gentleman’s Agreement, 53–54, 141
government support for Hispanics and immigrants, vs. blacks, 132–34
Graham, Frank Porter, 103–4
Haiti, black emigration to, 72–73, 85
Harlan, John, 115–16
Harris, Rencher N., 105
Harris-Lacewell, Melissa V., 35–36
Harshbarger, David, 114–15
Hastie, William, 102
health, black communities, 5–6, 34–35, 114–15
Hellwig, David, 38–39, 43–44, 57
Hero, Rodney E., 139
hierarchies, racial. See racial hierarchy
Higham, John, Strangers in the Land, 44–45
history
black–immigrant, 8–10, 37–38, 123
interminority conflict, 8–10
Irish immigrants, shared, 20–21
Hocutt, Thomas R. (Hocutt), 102–5
Hodges, Luther, 106
Holly, T., 85–86
Honig, Bonnie, 113
Huntington, Samuel, 64
Who are We?: The Challenge to America’s National Identity, 138
identity, national. See American identity; national identity
identity, racial
as dominant for blacks, 22–23
macrolevel, local level, and microlevel, 12–13
immigration and immigrants
African American, as self-determination, 70–71
brown, current, 138
memory, discourse and, 119
race and racism, 41–42, 137
as self-determination, 26
on social programs for blacks, 26–27
Trump, Donald, 41, 113–14, 144–45, 169
undocumented, black, 169–70
(p.273) white immigrant distancing from blacks, for acceptance, 20–21, 27, 157, 158
whites favoring white immigrants, 42–43
work ethic, vs. blacks, stereotype, 16–17
immigration and immigrants, black opinion on, 38, 42–43
attitudes, 152, 152t, 153t
contemporary, 144
engagement, 14
history, 37–38, 123
individual and group autonomy, 4
political issue, 22
power, 4
social mobility, 130
theorizing, 40–41
writings, scholarly, 40–41
immigration and immigrants, black public opinion complexity, 8–36
black body politic, theorizing, 24
black engagement, 14
collective memory and black attitude formation, 20
colorblindness and discontents, 33
conflicted nativism, 5–6, 23
interminority relations, theories, 28
immigration and immigrants, European
on blacks, 38
exclusion, black exclusion and, 38
immigration and immigrants, restriction
on black civil rights, 38
Trump, Donald, 41, 113–14, 144–45, 169
immigration and immigrants, threat, black response, 1–7
author’s personal experience, 1–2
labor practices, critiquing cheap, 2
self-preservation, 5
white supremacy, critiquing, 2, 3–5
white supremacy vs. white people, 2–3
Immigration and Naturalization Act, 37–38
immigration gateways, 37–38
immigration policy. See also specific policies
blacks on, conflicted nativism, 38–39, 137, 154, 155t
racism, 38–39
Trump, Donald, for Muslims, 41, 113–14, 144–45
immigration politics
black ambivalence, 163
as politics of belonging, 162–63
Immigration Reform and Control Act of 1986, 158
inclusion, black
barriers, 13
leveraging for, 66
political, protest activity, 18–19
integration, racial
Brown v. Board of Education, 105–6
mythology, 12–13
schools, Durham, NC, 105–9
interminority conflict, 8–36. See also immigration and immigrants, black opinion on
history, 8–10
intolerant black imagery, 11
misinterpretation, 10–11
racial hierarchies, reinforcing, 3, 13–14
white supremacy, root causes, 12–13
interminority relations, theories, 28
coalition theories, 28–31, 32–33, 35–36
competition, 28, 30–32, 35–36
demographics, 28
education, 31
white supremacy, 12–13, 14
(p.274) interview questionnaire, 173–74
intolerant black, imagery, 11
Irish immigrants, blacks on, 14–15
alliance with, shared histories, 20–21
as anti-Catholic, 45–46
assimilation, whiteness in, 138
Douglas, Frederick, 20–21, 52
pro-slavery and anti-black attitudes, adoption, 52–53
Islam
black history, 145
Trump immigration policies, 41, 113–14, 144–45
Jacobson, Matthew Frye, 91–92, 128
Japanese
immigrants, exclusion, 38–39, 53–54, 141
internment, 128–29
Jefferson, Thomas, on colonization, 74, 75–76
Jennings, James, 27–28
Jim Crow
on black activism, Durham, North Carolina, 101
on black property ownership, 114–16
challenging, Durham, North Carolina, 102
challenging, Hocutt, 102–5
challenging, Missouri ex. rel Gaines v. Canada, 104–5
end to, formal, 11
fight against, 26
as law, mythology, 13–14
laws, 21–22
present-day situation, 113–15
progress, measurement, 122–23
as racism, 33–34
segregation, 115–16
jobs. See also labor exploitation, immigrant
prospects, conflicted nativism, 149, 150t, 151–52, 160–61
wages, immigrant labor exploitation on, 14–16
Johnson, Alfred, 141
Johnson-Reed Act, 140–41, 142–43, 156–57
Junn, Jane, 27–28
Kaufmann, Karen M., 30
Kemp, Brian, 18–19
Kim, Claire Jean, 9–10, 27–28, 63–64
King, Rodney, 8–9, 132
Klinkner, Philip, 144–45
Know-Nothing movement, 41
Koreans, black tensions with, LA riots, 8–10, 132
labor exploitation, immigrant. See also jobs
on black and Latino wages, 14–16
Chinese, as anti-black mobilization, 40
critiquing cheap labor practices, 2
Latinos
citizenship, lack of, 32–33
minority politics, 25
vs. native stock, 141
as “new niggers,” 126–27
Proposition 187, 50–51, 139–40
Proposition 227, 139–40
Latinos, blacks and
animosities, 136–37
black attitudes toward, 152–53, 152t, 153t, 160
Compton, 31–32
contexts, 32–33
expressed warmth/relations, 152–53, 152t, 153t
Liberia, black return to, 80, 84, 91, 188n.4, 199200n.16
(p.275) Lincoln, Abraham, on black colonization, 68–69, 89–91
linked fate, 149–51, 150t, 159
Los Angeles Rebellion of 1992, 8–9, 132
majority-minority state, 42
Malcolm X, “Ballot or the Bullet,” 18–20, 62–63
marginalization, 24, 163–64. See also exclusion; white supremacy; specific topics
collective memory, 110–11
secondary, 158–59
Trump, Donald, 113–14
Masuoka, Natalie, 27–28
McClain, Paula D., 31, 64–65
McCoy, Cecil, 102
Meier, Kenneth, 31
memory
cultural, 116–17
discourse, immigration and, 119
past and present, 110
potency, vs. tie proximity, 117–18
in social learning, 110–11
memory, collective
black attitude formation, 20
black public opinion, 113
of past, on blacks’ present feelings about immigrants, 113
racial hierarchy, 96–97
Mexico, black emigration to, 84–85
Mills, Charles W., 12–14
minority politics, black to Latino and Asian shift, 25, 28
Minuteman Project, 41
Missouri ex. rel Gaines v. Canada, 104–5
mobility, black social, immigrants and, 130
model minority paradigm, 126
Montgomery Bus Boycott, 26
mulattoes, 127–28
Muslims
black history, 145
Trump immigration policies, 41, 113–14, 144–45
NAACP
challenging Jim Crow in Durham, NC, 102
eradicating barriers to social progress, 61
on HB 56 (Alabama), 140
national identity
of blacks, 40–41, 42–43, 51–52, 59, 60, 64, 65, 66, 67, 136
nativism and, 44
Trump on, 41–42
whites’ superordinate, 42–43
National Origins Quota Act, 44–45
national pride, 147, 149, 150t, 151, 159
nationhood, race and, 24
native stock, 141
nativism. See also specific topics
border protection, 41–42
as chauvinistic, 45–46
conflicted (See conflicted nativism)
definition, 40–41, 44–45
national identity and, 44
vs. patriotism, 45–47
rhetoric, 41–42
nativism, black, 7, 42–43, 48, 53–54, 60–61, 136
culture and, 64
dimensions, 60
on racism, 53–54
vs. white, 57–58
nativism, white, 57
blacks on, 57
immigration restriction, 64
racially white America, 45–46
racism, 51–52, 62–63
research focus, 47–48
(p.276) Naturalization Act of 1790, 50, 154
“Negro problem,” 78
colonization and, 73
Ngai, Mae M., 138, 141
North Carolina College for Negroes (NCCN)
Hocutt, 102–5
Missouri ex. rel Gaines v. Canada, 104–5
Northup, Solomon, 12 Years a Slave, 83–84
Notes on the State of Virginia (Jefferson), 75–76
Nunnally, Shayla C., 35–36, 110–11, 119
Obama administration, 164–65
open borders, 154, 162
opinion, black public. See black public opinion; specific topics
patriotism, 45–46
vs. nativism, 45–47
Pearsall Plan, 106
Pearson, Conrad, 102
Perry, Andre, 114–15
Plessy v. Ferguson, 101–2, 115–16
police killings, of blacks, 11–12, 118–19
policy, immigration. See immigration policy; specific policies
Polinard, J. L., 31
Political Destiny of the Colored People Race on the American Continent, The (Delany), 93
politics
Asian minority, 25
of belonging, 162–63
black body politic, theorizing, 24
black inclusion, protests, 18–19
immigration, 22
immigration, black ambivalence, 163
interminority, 28–31, 32–33, 35–36
Latino minority, 25
participation, black, 61
Populist Movement, 16
poverty, 34–35
prejudice. See also discrimination; racism; specific topics
Durham, North Carolina, 98–99
Presumed Alliance, The, (Vaca), 31–32
Price, Melanye T., 119
pride, national, 147, 149, 150t, 151, 159
Proposition 187, California, 50–51, 138–39
Proposition 227, California, 138–40
Prosser Rebellion of 1800, 73–74
Protestantism, 45–46
public opinion, black. See black public opinion; specific topics
questionnaire, interview, 173–74
race. See also specific topics
American identity, 24
citizenship, 48
immigration, 137
Japanese immigrant exclusion, 38–39, 53–54, 141
race, (re)remembering, 96–135
black history and immigrants, 123
collective memory, 110–11 (see also collective memory)
collective memory, black public opinion, 113
collective memory, racial hierarchy, 96–97
comparative racial progress, 120
Durham, North Carolina, 8, 97 (see also Durham, North Carolina)
Durham Committee on Negro Affairs, 105
immigrants, black social mobility and, 130
Jim Crow, challenging, 102
Jim Crow, on black activism, 101
memory, discourse, and immigration, 119
(p.277) memory, past and present, 110
methods, 111
NAACP, 102
school integration, 102
Race and Nation (RAN) survey, 7, 152–53, 175–85
racial hierarchy
Asian immigrants and Asian Americans, 16–17, 63–64, 98–130
blackness as bottom of, 157–58
collective memory, 96–97
interminority conflict, reinforcing, 3, 13–14
racial identity
as dominant for blacks, 22–23
macrolevel, local level, and microlevel, 12–13
racial progress, comparative, 120
racism. See also specific topics
black nativism on, 53–54
as chief black issue, 59–60
colorblindness, 33–34
eradication, black commitment, 59–60
immigration debate, 41–42
immigration policy, 38–39
white, on conflicted nativism, 62
Randolph, A. Philip, 16, 43–44
Reed, David, 141, 143
retrenchment, racial, black progress and, 96–97
rights, civil. See civil rights
Rodney King incident and Los Angeles Rebellion, 8–9, 132
Rothwell, Jonathan, 114–15
Sanchez, George J., 30
sanctuary cities and states, 10, 41–42, 140, 165
schools
desegregation, Durham, NC, 105–9
“separate but equal” education, 101–2
secondary marginalization, 158–59
Secure Communities, 165
segregation
Asians, 128
Durham, North Carolina, 98–99, 100–2
Jim Crow, 115–16
segregation tax, 170
self-determination
African American immigration as, 70–71
for blacks, 26
blacks on, 16
immigration as, 26
“separate but equal,” 101–2
Shaw, II, Jamiel, 10
Shepard, James, 102–4
Sidanius, Jim, 47
social learning, memories in, 110–11
social mobility, black, immigrants and, 130
social programs for blacks, immigration on, 26–27
social trust, learning from elders, 35–36
Souls of Black Folk, The (DuBois), 51–52
Spaulding, C.C., 98–99, 102–3
statelessness, 52, 68–69, 70–71, 72–73, 82
Stevenson, Brenda, Contested Murder of Latasha Harlins: Justice, Gender, and the Origins of the LA Riots, 8–9
Strangers in the Land (Higham), 44–45
suffrage, black, 48–49
Taney, Chief Justice, 48–49, 71–72
Tillery, Jr., Alvin B., 15–16
Tolbert, Caroline J., 139
Trevor, John Bond, 141
Trump, Donald
on immigration, 41, 113–14, 144–45, 169
on Muslims, 41, 113–14, 144–45
on national identity, 41–42
(p.278) trust, learning from elders, 35–36
12 Years a Slave (Northup), 83–84
twoness
of black citizenship, 51
of black public opinion on immigration, 4
typical American, 137–38, 149–50, 150t, 152
undocumented, black, 169–70
Vaca, Nicolas C., 31–32
voter registration
Asians, 33
Durham, NC, 105
Kemp, Georgia, 18–19
Latinos, 33
Voting Rights Act, 18–19, 37–38, 115–16, 163
attacks on, recent, 34, 166–67
wages, black and Latin, immigrant labor exploitation on, 14–16
Walker, David, Appeal to the Colored Citizens of the United States, 74–76
Washington, Booker T., 39–40, 55
wealth, 34–35
Wheeler et al. v. The Durham City Board of Education, 106–7
white(ness)
control and access, 129
exclusionary, 128, 157
fragility, 42
Irish immigrant assimilation, 138
membership in family of, 129–30
as state of being vs. racial descriptor, 129
white supremacy
American Colonization Society, 88
American identity, 13–14, 16–17
on American identity, 162
on black property ownership, 114–16
on black public opinion, 162
on black status, 142–43
citizenship, 16–17, 62–63
as core issue, 55–58
critiquing, in black response to immigration threat, 2, 3–5
definition, 2–3, 12–13
DuBois on mutable nature of, 142–43
end goal, 26–27
globalization, 57–58
immigration bans and, 55–57
on interminority relations, 12–13, 14
police shootings, of blacks, 11–12
racial barriers to black inclusion, 13
racial hierarchies, reinforcing, 3, 13–14
root causes, 12–13
vs. white people, 2–3
whites vs. non-whites to blacks vs. non-blacks, 127–28
worldwide anti-blackness, 70–71
Who are We?: The Challenge to America’s National Identity (Huntington), 138
Wrinkle, Robert D., 31
xenophobia, 38