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BuildThe Power of Hip Hop Diplomacy in a Divided World$
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Mark Katz

Print publication date: 2019

Print ISBN-13: 9780190056117

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: October 2019

DOI: 10.1093/oso/9780190056117.001.0001

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PRINTED FROM OXFORD SCHOLARSHIP ONLINE (oxford.universitypressscholarship.com). (c) Copyright Oxford University Press, 2022. All Rights Reserved. An individual user may print out a PDF of a single chapter of a monograph in OSO for personal use.date: 01 July 2022

History: From Jazz Ambassadors to Hip Hop Diplomats

History: From Jazz Ambassadors to Hip Hop Diplomats

(p.25) chapter 1 History: From Jazz Ambassadors to Hip Hop Diplomats

Mark Katz

Oxford University Press

This chapter chronicles the history of official US cultural diplomacy, starting in the 1930s up until the birth of hip hop diplomacy in 2001 and the establishment of Next Level, the first State Department–funded hip hop diplomacy program, in 2013. National security threats have long been the animating force behind US cultural diplomacy. First, the threat was fascism. Later, it was communism, and then terrorism. The first hip hop “diplomat” was rapper Toni Blackman. Next Level originated in the State Department’s Bureau of Educational and Cultural Affairs (ECA). Mark Katz was the founding director of Next Level.

Keywords:   State Department, cultural diplomacy, hip hop diplomacy, jazz diplomacy, Toni Blackman, women in hip hop, Bureau of Educational and Cultural Affairs

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