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Coups and RevolutionsMass Mobilization, the Egyptian Military, and the United States from Mubarak to Sisi$
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Amy Austin Holmes

Print publication date: 2019

Print ISBN-13: 9780190071455

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: September 2019

DOI: 10.1093/oso/9780190071455.001.0001

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PRINTED FROM OXFORD SCHOLARSHIP ONLINE (oxford.universitypressscholarship.com). (c) Copyright Oxford University Press, 2021. All Rights Reserved. An individual user may print out a PDF of a single chapter of a monograph in OSO for personal use. date: 24 February 2021

“Down down with the Supreme Guide”

“Down down with the Supreme Guide”

The Third Wave against the Muslim Brotherhood

(July 1, 2012–July 3, 2013)

(p.104) 5 “Down down with the Supreme Guide”
Coups and Revolutions

Amy Austin Holmes

Oxford University Press

During the first six months of Mohamed Morsi’s presidency, there was a great deal of collaboration between Morsi and the military. The Mubarak-era business elite also displayed a willingness to continue their profit-making schemes and showed little resistance to Morsi’s administration. American officials had vowed to support whoever won Egypt’s first real elections, and they believed a “democratic transition” was in the offing. Of the four key players, it was the citizenry who turned against Morsi first, including some of the very people who voted him into office. Opposition to Morsi began even before Tamarod emerged when he issued a Constitutional Declaration in the fall of 2012. Tamarod can be divided into two wings: one that was Nasserist, and another that was opposed to the military returning to power. Tamarod was not a creation of the deep state but a broad-based social movement, with all the diversity and contradictions that many big tent movements face, including the emergence of divisions between radicals and moderates and the co-optation of a few key leaders by the regime. The summer of 2013 constituted a watershed moment as the balance of power shifted back in favor of the military, heralding the beginning of the counterrevolution.

Keywords:   Muslim Brotherhood, Morsi, democratic transition, protests, Tamarod, coup

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