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Interrogation and TortureIntegrating Efficacy with Law and Morality$
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Steven J. Barela, Mark Fallon, Gloria Gaggioli, and Jens David Ohlin

Print publication date: 2020

Print ISBN-13: 9780190097523

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: January 2020

DOI: 10.1093/oso/9780190097523.001.0001

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PRINTED FROM OXFORD SCHOLARSHIP ONLINE (oxford.universitypressscholarship.com). (c) Copyright Oxford University Press, 2022. All Rights Reserved. An individual user may print out a PDF of a single chapter of a monograph in OSO for personal use.date: 26 January 2022

Investigative Interviewing

Investigative Interviewing

From England to Norway and Beyond

(p.171) 6 Investigative Interviewing
Interrogation and Torture

Ray Bull

Asbjørn Rachlew

Oxford University Press

In many places throughout world, suspects (and sometimes witnesses and victims) are still interrogated in a coercive, pressurizing manner. The beliefs underlying such practices are examined in this chapter, as is the emerging body of research on offenders’ opinions about effective interviewing, which actually supports the efficacy of a more humanitarian approach. A seismic shift away from coercive interrogation that seminally commenced in 1992 in England and Wales—involving the “PEACE” investigative interviewing approach—is described, together with the research that underpinned this (then novel) method. Later scientific work in the United Kingdom on its effectiveness is then presented and discussed. After these studies are reviewed, more recent research from various countries are put forward that have also found a rapport-based, humane approach to be effective. Building on this emerging science, a number of investigative organizations in a variety of countries have replaced coercive interrogation techniques with investigative interviewing (e.g., the Norwegian Police and the New Zealand Police), and a greater number are in the process of doing the same. The Norwegian Police experience is exemplary on this point, and will be described in detail. The chapter will then conclude with an account of the recent United Nations initiative to establish a Universal Protocol that adopts this type of non-coercive approach based on study and practice.

Keywords:   interrogation, investigative interviewing, humanitarian, PEACE method, rapport, effectiveness, United Nations recommendation

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