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The Role of Technology in Clinical Neuropsychology$
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Robert L. Kane and Thomas D. Parsons

Print publication date: 2017

Print ISBN-13: 9780190234737

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: November 2020

DOI: 10.1093/oso/9780190234737.001.0001

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PRINTED FROM OXFORD SCHOLARSHIP ONLINE (oxford.universitypressscholarship.com). (c) Copyright Oxford University Press, 2021. All Rights Reserved. An individual user may print out a PDF of a single chapter of a monograph in OSO for personal use. date: 03 December 2021

Advances in Neuropsychological Assessment of Attention

Advances in Neuropsychological Assessment of Attention

(p.103) 6 Advances in Neuropsychological Assessment of Attention
The Role of Technology in Clinical Neuropsychology

Unai Díaz-Orueta

Oxford University Press

Attention is one of the most basic cognitive processes and is a prerequisite for the use of more complex functions, since it is not possible to evaluate perception or memory processes without keeping in mind attention issues (Amador, Forns, & Kirchner, 2006). The ability to maintain an appropriate level of attention is basic for education and learning, especially during childhood and school age. With the aim of studying attention separately from other cognitive functions, the so-called continuous performance tests (CPT) were created. The first series of CPTs were developed by Rosvold, Mirsky, Sarason, Bransome, and Beck (1956) to study vigilance in adults with acquired brain injury (Riccio, Reynolds, & Lowe, 2001), more specifically, persons with seizures (Amador, Forns, & Kirchner, 2006). Nowadays, CPTs are still one of the most widely used measures for the assessment of attention and processing speed. Briefly, it can be said that a CPT is a group of paradigms to evaluate attention, inhibitory response or disinhibition (a component of executive control that provides information about the subject’s impulsivity), and processing speed. Basically, CPTs rely on the rapid, random presentation of a series of stimuli to which the subject must respond following instructions given at the beginning of the test. The main value of CPTs is their empirical support. Diverse CPT paradigms have consistently demonstrated their sensitivity for a great variety of both neurological and psychiatric disorders, in adults and in children. Frequently, CPTs also use a continuous vigilance task, in order to obtain quantitative information about the individual’s ability to sustain attention in time. From its creation, the CPT paradigm has been used with many variants of its task component. Greenberg and Walkman (1993) found up to 100 different versions of CPT in use. Historically, when Rosvold and his collaborators introduced the test, they had the goal of measuring correct answers provided by the subject as an indicator of selective attention. With subsequent experimentation, other measures, such as processing speed, impulsivity, inattention, and sustained attention, divided or alternate, have been included.

Keywords:   AULA Nesplora, Barkley's Unique Deficit Model, Color Word Interference Test, DSM scales, Digital Media Works, Distractibility Test, EDAH test, Public Law, Trail Making Test, Virtual Classroom, acquired brain injury (ABI), cognitive profiles, neurofibromatosis, scenario-based assessment

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