Other chapters in this volume focus on the use of technology to enhance and expand the field of neuropsychology. Some of the enhancements are natural outgrowths of trends present in society at large and involve updating the assessment process to make it more efficient and reliable. Computerized approaches to assessment frequently use off-the-shelf technology, in some cases to administer traditional style tests, while in others to present tasks not readily accomplished with test booklets and paper (see Section II of this book on “Beyond Paper-and-Pencil Assessment”). The computer has also permitted the implementation of new testing paradigms such as scenario-based assessment and the use of virtual reality (see Section III: “Domain and Scenario-based Assessment”). The use of the computer has also made possible efforts to expand access to care through the development of efficient test batteries and telemedicine-based assessment (see Chapter 5 on Teleneuropsychology). The use of computers, the ability to implement life-like scenarios in a controlled environment, and telemedicine will also expand available approaches to cognitive remediation with cellphones augmenting the ability of individuals to engage in self-monitoring. The integration of neuroimaging into the assessment process was clearly presented in the chapter in this volume by Erin Bigler (see also Section IV of this book on “Integrating Cognitive Assessment with Biological Metrics”). An additional role for neuroimaging is the use of its ever evolving techniques and methods to model neural networks and to refine our understanding of how the brain works and how best to conceptualize cognitive domains. Both neuroimaging to model neural networks and the role of neuroinformatics will be discussed in the remaining sections of this chapter on some prospects for a future computational neuropsychology. Technological advances in neuroimaging of brain structure and function offer great potential for revolutionizing neuropsychology (Bilder, 2011). While neuroimaging has taken advantage of advances in computerization and neuroinformatics, neuropsychological assessments are outmoded and reflect nosological attempts at classification that occurred prior to contemporary neuroimaging (see Chapter 13 in this volume).
Keywords: Cognitive Atlas, Decade of the Brain, IntegNeuro, WebNeuro, automated assessments, brain research, cognitive control, neural networks, neurotechnology, psychopathology, task switching, triple network model (Menon model), virtual environments (VEs), web-based neurocognitive assessments
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