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The Role of Technology in Clinical Neuropsychology$
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Robert L. Kane and Thomas D. Parsons

Print publication date: 2017

Print ISBN-13: 9780190234737

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: November 2020

DOI: 10.1093/oso/9780190234737.001.0001

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PRINTED FROM OXFORD SCHOLARSHIP ONLINE (oxford.universitypressscholarship.com). (c) Copyright Oxford University Press, 2021. All Rights Reserved. An individual user may print out a PDF of a single chapter of a monograph in OSO for personal use. date: 02 December 2021

On the Use of Virtual Reality as an Outcome Measure in Neuropsychological Rehabilitation

On the Use of Virtual Reality as an Outcome Measure in Neuropsychological Rehabilitation

(p.61) 4 On the Use of Virtual Reality as an Outcome Measure in Neuropsychological Rehabilitation
The Role of Technology in Clinical Neuropsychology

Diana Jovanovski

Konstantine K. Zakzanis

Oxford University Press

Despite the prevalence of executive dysfunction across multiple neurological and psychiatric conditions, there have been few validated rehabilitative interventions targeting it. One intervention holding promise for patients with executive dysfunc­tion is Robertson’s Goal Management Training (GMT; Robertson, 1996). GMT is based on Duncan’s (1986) theory of goal neglect (or failure to execute intentions), in which disorganized behavior is attributed to impaired construction and use of “goal lists,” considered to direct behavior by controlling actions that promote or oppose task completion. GMT attempts to ameliorate goal neglect through verbally mediated, metacognitive strategies that systematically target planning abilities by teach­ing individuals to structure their intentions. Through presentations, discussions, exercises, and homework assignments, GMT trains participants to use strategies like stopping and orienting to relevant information, partitioning goals into more easily managed subgoals, encoding and retaining goals, and monitoring performance. Investigations into the efficacy of GMT have been promising in both normal older adults and in patients with acquired brain injury (ABI). In order to investigate the efficacy of GMT for older adults with cognitive complaints, van Hooren and colleagues (2007) randomly assigned 69 normal, community-dwelling adults age 55 years or older to a six-week GMT program or to a waitlist control group. After the intervention, participants from the GMT group reported significantly fewer anxiety symptoms, were significantly less annoyed by their cognitive failures, and reported improved ability to manage their executive failures as com­pared to control participants. Though this study reported positive results for subjective outcome measures, the intervention showed no effect on the Stroop Colour Word Test (Houx, Jolles, & Vreeling, 1993; Stroop, 1935). Levine and colleagues (2000) reported on 30 traumatic brain injury (TBI) patients who were randomly assigned to receive a brief trial (1-hour session) of GMT or motor skills training. Upon completion of the intervention, the GMT group, but not the motor skills group, showed significant improvement on paper-and-pencil tasks designed to mimic everyday executive tasks that are problematic for patients with goal neglect.

Keywords:   Boston Naming Test (BNT), Cognitive Failures Questionnaire, Frontal Systems Behavior Scale (FrSBe), Goal Management Training (GMT), Multiple Errands Test (MET), National Adult Reading Test (NART), STOP phrases, absent-minded slips, acquired brain injury (ABI), executive function scale, outcome measures, test measures

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