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Cancer Epidemiology and Prevention$
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Michael Thun, Martha S. Linet, James R. Cerhan, Christopher A. Haiman, and David Schottenfeld

Print publication date: 2017

Print ISBN-13: 9780190238667

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: December 2017

DOI: 10.1093/oso/9780190238667.001.0001

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PRINTED FROM OXFORD SCHOLARSHIP ONLINE (oxford.universitypressscholarship.com). (c) Copyright Oxford University Press, 2021. All Rights Reserved. An individual user may print out a PDF of a single chapter of a monograph in OSO for personal use. date: 19 October 2021



(p.185) 11 Tobacco
Cancer Epidemiology and Prevention

Michael J. Thun

Neal D. Freedman

Oxford University Press

Tobacco is the leading preventable cause of cancer and other non-communicable diseases worldwide. IARC and the U.S. Surgeon General designate over twenty cancer sites or subsites as causally related to active cigarette smoking, including lung, oral cavity, nasal cavity and accessory sinuses, naso- oro- and hypopharynx, larynx, esophagus (squamous cell carcinoma and adenocarcinoma), stomach, pancreas, colorectum, liver, kidney (adeno- and transitional cell carcinoma), ureter, urinary bladder, uterine cervix, ovary (mucinous), and acute myeloid leukemia. Even this list may be incomplete, as it does not include sites for which the evidence is still considered limited, such as advanced prostate cancer and breast cancer. In addition to cigarettes, all other forms of smoked and conventional smokeless tobacco products, as well as involuntary exposure to tobacco smoke, cause cancer. The use of multiple tobacco products continues to complicate tobacco control, as does the recent introduction of novel products such as e-cigarettes.

Keywords:   tobacco, cancer, smoking, e-cigarettes, lung

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