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Cancer Epidemiology and Prevention$
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Michael Thun, Martha S. Linet, James R. Cerhan, Christopher A. Haiman, and David Schottenfeld

Print publication date: 2017

Print ISBN-13: 9780190238667

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: December 2017

DOI: 10.1093/oso/9780190238667.001.0001

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PRINTED FROM OXFORD SCHOLARSHIP ONLINE (oxford.universitypressscholarship.com). (c) Copyright Oxford University Press, 2021. All Rights Reserved. An individual user may print out a PDF of a single chapter of a monograph in OSO for personal use. date: 19 October 2021

Pharmaceutical Drugs Other Than Hormones

Pharmaceutical Drugs Other Than Hormones

(p.411) 23 Pharmaceutical Drugs Other Than Hormones
Cancer Epidemiology and Prevention

Marie C. Bradley

Michael A. O’Rorke

Janine A. Cooper

Søren Friis

Laurel A. Habel

Oxford University Press

Current regulatory programs for drug safety are not designed to identify adverse events that have a long induction time or are rare, such as most cancers. Meta-analyses of randomized clinical trials of medications can sometimes provide information on shorter-term risk of common cancer types, though large observational studies with long follow-up are needed to examine most drug–cancer associations. Over the last few decades, a number of new methods have been developed to address several types of confounding and bias of particular concern in pharmacoepidemiology, and better data sources have become available. Of the approximately twenty medications with sufficient evidence to be classified by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) as human carcinogens, most are anti-neoplastic agents or immunosuppressants. Substantial data from studies in humans indicate that use of aspirin and other nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) protects against colorectal cancer and possibly a number of other common cancers.

Keywords:   human carcinogens, pharmacoepidemiology, drug safety, drug- cancer associations, International Agency for Research on Cancer

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