Eleven infectious agents (seven viruses, three parasites, and one bacterium) have been classified by the International Agency for Research on Cancer as carcinogenic to humans for one or more cancer sites: hepatitis B virus; hepatitis C virus; thirteen types of human papillomavirus (HPV); human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1); human T-cell leukemia virus type 1; Epstein-Barr virus; Kaposi sarcoma herpesvirus; Helicobacter pylori; Opisthorchis viverrini; Clonorchis sinensis; and Schistosoma haematobium. Other infectious agents, such as Merkel cell polyomavirus, Plasmodium falciparum, and cutaneous HPVs, have been classified as “probably carcinogenic” or “possibly carcinogenic.” Accurate biomarkers of chronic infection have been essential for estimating risk and ascribing a causal role to infectious agents in cancer. Of the 14 million cases of cancer estimated to have occurred worldwide in 2012, 2.2 million were caused by infectious agents. Vaccination and screen-and-treat programs have the potential for greatly reducing the burden of cancer caused by infections.
Oxford Scholarship Online requires a subscription or purchase to access the full text of books within the service. Public users can however freely search the site and view the abstracts and keywords for each book and chapter.
If you think you should have access to this title, please contact your librarian.