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Cancer Epidemiology and Prevention$
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Michael Thun, Martha S. Linet, James R. Cerhan, Christopher A. Haiman, and David Schottenfeld

Print publication date: 2017

Print ISBN-13: 9780190238667

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: December 2017

DOI: 10.1093/oso/9780190238667.001.0001

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PRINTED FROM OXFORD SCHOLARSHIP ONLINE (oxford.universitypressscholarship.com). (c) Copyright Oxford University Press, 2021. All Rights Reserved. An individual user may print out a PDF of a single chapter of a monograph in OSO for personal use. date: 19 October 2021

Infectious Agents

Infectious Agents

(p.433) 24 Infectious Agents
Cancer Epidemiology and Prevention

Silvia Franceschi

Hashem B. El-Serag

David Forman

Robert Newton

Martyn Plummer

Oxford University Press

Eleven infectious agents (seven viruses, three parasites, and one bacterium) have been classified by the International Agency for Research on Cancer as carcinogenic to humans for one or more cancer sites: hepatitis B virus; hepatitis C virus; thirteen types of human papillomavirus (HPV); human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1); human T-cell leukemia virus type 1; Epstein-Barr virus; Kaposi sarcoma herpesvirus; Helicobacter pylori; Opisthorchis viverrini; Clonorchis sinensis; and Schistosoma haematobium. Other infectious agents, such as Merkel cell polyomavirus, Plasmodium falciparum, and cutaneous HPVs, have been classified as “probably carcinogenic” or “possibly carcinogenic.” Accurate biomarkers of chronic infection have been essential for estimating risk and ascribing a causal role to infectious agents in cancer. Of the 14 million cases of cancer estimated to have occurred worldwide in 2012, 2.2 million were caused by infectious agents. Vaccination and screen-and-treat programs have the potential for greatly reducing the burden of cancer caused by infections.

Keywords:   Helicobacter pylori, human papillomavirus, hepatitis B virus, hepatitis C virus, Epstein-Barr virus, human immunodeficiency virus

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