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Cancer Epidemiology and Prevention$
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Michael Thun, Martha S. Linet, James R. Cerhan, Christopher A. Haiman, and David Schottenfeld

Print publication date: 2017

Print ISBN-13: 9780190238667

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: December 2017

DOI: 10.1093/oso/9780190238667.001.0001

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PRINTED FROM OXFORD SCHOLARSHIP ONLINE (oxford.universitypressscholarship.com). (c) Copyright Oxford University Press, 2021. All Rights Reserved. An individual user may print out a PDF of a single chapter of a monograph in OSO for personal use. date: 19 October 2021

Esophageal Cancer

Esophageal Cancer

(p.579) 30 Esophageal Cancer
Cancer Epidemiology and Prevention

William J. Blot

Robert E. Tarone

Oxford University Press

Cancer of the esophagus is the eighth most common malignancy worldwide in terms of incident cases and the sixth most common for cancer deaths. The two main histopathologic subtypes, esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) and esophageal adenocarcinoma (EADC), have strikingly different clinical and epidemiologic features. ESCC occurs throughout the esophagus and is the most common histologic subtype globally; over 90% of cases in the traditionally high-risk regions of Eastern Asia and Eastern and Southern Africa are ESCC. The incidence of ESCC is decreasing worldwide. In some high-risk areas in Asia the decrease was preceded by economic development and improvements in diet, whereas in high-income countries the decrease followed reductions in cigarette smoking. In contrast, the incidence of EADC continues to increase in many high- and middle-income countries, especially among white men. EADC develops in the lower third of the esophagus, primarily because of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) and obesity.

Keywords:   squamous cell carcinoma, adenocarcinoma, smoking, esophagus, cancer, obesity

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