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Cancer Epidemiology and Prevention$
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Michael Thun, Martha S. Linet, James R. Cerhan, Christopher A. Haiman, and David Schottenfeld

Print publication date: 2017

Print ISBN-13: 9780190238667

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: December 2017

DOI: 10.1093/oso/9780190238667.001.0001

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PRINTED FROM OXFORD SCHOLARSHIP ONLINE (oxford.universitypressscholarship.com). (c) Copyright Oxford University Press, 2021. All Rights Reserved. An individual user may print out a PDF of a single chapter of a monograph in OSO for personal use. date: 19 October 2021

Liver Cancer

Liver Cancer

(p.635) 33 Liver Cancer
Cancer Epidemiology and Prevention

W. Thomas London

Jessica L. Petrick

Katherine A. McGlynn

Oxford University Press

Primary liver cancer is the sixth most frequently occurring cancer in the world and the second most common in terms of cancer deaths. The global burden of liver cancer is borne principally by countries in East Asia and Africa, where 80% of liver cancer arises. Incidence rates of liver cancer, however, have begun to decline in Asia, while rates are increasing in low-rate areas such as Europe and North America. The dominant histology of liver cancer in almost all countries is hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The major risk factors for HCC—chronic infection with either hepatitis B virus (HBV) or hepatitis C virus (HCV), aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) contamination of foodstuffs, excessive alcohol consumption, and diabetes/obesity/fatty liver disease—all result in chronic inflammation in the liver. HBV infection is preventable by immunization, and HCV infection is largely preventable by public health measures and now is curable with new antiviral therapies.

Keywords:   hepatocellular carcinoma, liver cancer, hepatitis B virus, hepatitis C virus, aflatoxin, fatty liver disease, obesity, diabetes

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