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Cancer Epidemiology and Prevention$
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Michael Thun, Martha S. Linet, James R. Cerhan, Christopher A. Haiman, and David Schottenfeld

Print publication date: 2017

Print ISBN-13: 9780190238667

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: December 2017

DOI: 10.1093/oso/9780190238667.001.0001

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PRINTED FROM OXFORD SCHOLARSHIP ONLINE (oxford.universitypressscholarship.com). (c) Copyright Oxford University Press, 2021. All Rights Reserved. An individual user may print out a PDF of a single chapter of a monograph in OSO for personal use. date: 19 October 2021

Cancers of the Colon and Rectum

Cancers of the Colon and Rectum

(p.681) 36 Cancers of the Colon and Rectum
Cancer Epidemiology and Prevention

Kana Wu

NaNa Keum

Reiko Nishihara

Edward L. Giovannucci

Oxford University Press

Worldwide, colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most common cancer in men and second in women, with annual estimates of 1.4 million newly diagnosed cases and over 690,000 deaths. Incidence rates relate closely to economic development. Although incidence rates have stabilized at a high level in most economically developed countries, they continue to increase in many traditionally low-risk countries, following the uptake of Western patterns of diet and physical inactivity. In principle, CRC is among the most preventable of all common cancers. Potentially modifiable risk factors include obesity, physical inactivity, high intake of red or processed meat, tobacco smoking, and heavy alcohol use. Several screening tests effectively reduce both the incidence and death rates of CRC through the detection of precancerous lesions and the treatment of early stage cancers. Despite the preventability of CRC, incidence rates over the last twenty years have decreased in only a few countries.

Keywords:   colorectal cancer, diet, obesity, screening, prevention, detection

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