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Cancer Epidemiology and Prevention$
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Michael Thun, Martha S. Linet, James R. Cerhan, Christopher A. Haiman, and David Schottenfeld

Print publication date: 2017

Print ISBN-13: 9780190238667

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: December 2017

DOI: 10.1093/oso/9780190238667.001.0001

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PRINTED FROM OXFORD SCHOLARSHIP ONLINE (oxford.universitypressscholarship.com). (c) Copyright Oxford University Press, 2021. All Rights Reserved. An individual user may print out a PDF of a single chapter of a monograph in OSO for personal use. date: 19 October 2021

Anal Cancer

Anal Cancer

(p.707) 37 Anal Cancer
Cancer Epidemiology and Prevention

Andrew E. Grulich

Fengyi Jin

I. Mary Poynten

Oxford University Press

Anal canal cancer is a generally uncommon cancer that has been increasing in incidence for several decades. In most geographic locations, squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) accounts for 70% or more of cases, and incidence is slightly higher in women than in men. The remaining cases are mainly adenocarcinoma, but the degree to which this represents misclassified rectal cancer is uncertain. In almost all cases, anal SCC is caused by persistent infection with high-risk types of human papillomavirus (HPV); HPV-16 accounts for 75% or more of all cases. Survival is highly stage-dependent, and cure is usual if the cancer is diagnosed early. The main risk factor is anal exposure to HPV, and for this reason homosexual men are at particularly high risk. In women, risk is increased in those with higher numbers of sexual partners, and in those with a history of HPV-related disease at genital sites.

Keywords:   anal cancer, human papillomavirus, squamous cell carcinoma, adenocarcinoma, homosexual men

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