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Cancer Epidemiology and Prevention$
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Michael Thun, Martha S. Linet, James R. Cerhan, Christopher A. Haiman, and David Schottenfeld

Print publication date: 2017

Print ISBN-13: 9780190238667

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: December 2017

DOI: 10.1093/oso/9780190238667.001.0001

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PRINTED FROM OXFORD SCHOLARSHIP ONLINE (oxford.universitypressscholarship.com). (c) Copyright Oxford University Press, 2021. All Rights Reserved. An individual user may print out a PDF of a single chapter of a monograph in OSO for personal use. date: 19 October 2021



(p.715) 38 Leukemias
Cancer Epidemiology and Prevention

Martha S. Linet

Lindsay M. Morton

Susan S. Devesa

Graça M. Dores

Oxford University Press

The 2001 World Health Organization (WHO) classification of hematopoietic and lymphoid neoplasms categorized “the leukemias” into two major groupings—myeloid and lymphoid. Myeloid neoplasms, which are the primary focus of this chapter, include acute myeloid leukemia (AML), myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS), and myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPN). Lymphoid neoplasms are mostly reviewed as part of non-Hodgkin lymphoma in Chapter 40 of this volume, although descriptive patterns and selected etiologic studies are briefly discussed in this chapter because of historical trends. Worldwide, leukemias are ranked eleventh among all cancer types, comprising approximately 2.5% of all malignancies. Exposure to ionizing radiation and certain chemical carcinogens (e.g., cytotoxic chemotherapy, benzene, formaldehyde) are the most consistently associated risk factors for MDS and/or AML. Radiation has been linked with CML, and cigarette smoking with AML. Fewer risk factors have been identified for MPNs. Some evidence implicates increased risks of AML in rubber workers, farmers, and other agricultural workers.

Keywords:   myeloid neoplasms, acute myeloid leukemia, myelodysplastic syndromes, myeloproliferative neoplasms, radiation, benzene, cytotoxic chemotherapy

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