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Cancer Epidemiology and Prevention$
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Michael Thun, Martha S. Linet, James R. Cerhan, Christopher A. Haiman, and David Schottenfeld

Print publication date: 2017

Print ISBN-13: 9780190238667

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: December 2017

DOI: 10.1093/oso/9780190238667.001.0001

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PRINTED FROM OXFORD SCHOLARSHIP ONLINE (oxford.universitypressscholarship.com). (c) Copyright Oxford University Press, 2021. All Rights Reserved. An individual user may print out a PDF of a single chapter of a monograph in OSO for personal use. date: 19 October 2021

Genomic Landscape of Cancer

Genomic Landscape of Cancer

Insights for Epidemiologists

(p.43) 4 Genomic Landscape of Cancer
Cancer Epidemiology and Prevention

Christopher J. Maher

Elaine R. Mardis

Oxford University Press

The study of cancer genomics has advanced rapidly during the last decade due to the development of next generation or massively parallel technology for DNA sequencing. The resulting knowledge is transforming the understanding of both inherited (germline) genetic susceptibility and the somatic changes in tumor tissue that drive abnormal growth and progression. The somatic alterations in tumor tissue vary depending on the type of cancer and its characteristic “genomic landscape.” New technologies have increased the speed and lowered the cost of DNA sequencing and have enabled high-volume characterization of RNA, DNA methylation, DNA-protein complexes, DNA conformation, and a host of other factors that, when altered, can contribute to the development and/or progression of the cancer. Technologic advances have greatly expanded research on somatic changes in tumor tissue, revealing both the singularity of individual cancer genomes and the commonality of genetic alterations that drive cancer in different tissues.

Keywords:   cancer genomics, next generation sequencing, DNA, genome, cancer, tumor

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