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Cancer Epidemiology and Prevention$
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Michael Thun, Martha S. Linet, James R. Cerhan, Christopher A. Haiman, and David Schottenfeld

Print publication date: 2017

Print ISBN-13: 9780190238667

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: December 2017

DOI: 10.1093/oso/9780190238667.001.0001

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PRINTED FROM OXFORD SCHOLARSHIP ONLINE (oxford.universitypressscholarship.com). (c) Copyright Oxford University Press, 2021. All Rights Reserved. An individual user may print out a PDF of a single chapter of a monograph in OSO for personal use. date: 19 October 2021

Thyroid Cancer

Thyroid Cancer

(p.839) 44 Thyroid Cancer
Cancer Epidemiology and Prevention

Cari M. Kitahara

Arthur B. Schneider

Alina V. Brenner

Oxford University Press

Thyroid cancer, once considered relatively uncommon in the general population, is now the eighth most commonly diagnosed cancer among women worldwide, and the third most common cancer among women under 45 years of age. The incidence is substantially higher in women than men (3:1 ratio); this differential is highest between ages 15 and 39 and declines with age. Nearly all thyroid cancers derive from the follicular epithelium, and the most common histological type is papillary thyroid cancer (PTC). Incidence of thyroid cancer has been increasing in many countries since the early 1980s. This trend appears to be attributable to a combination of diagnostic changes, improvements in the detection and diagnosis of smaller PTCs, and changes in the prevalence of environmental factors. While less common, the incidence of larger, more advanced-stage PTCs has increased at a similar rate to that of smaller PTCs.

Keywords:   thyroid cancer, papillary thyroid cancer, epithelium, diagnosis, environment

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