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Cancer Epidemiology and Prevention$
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Michael Thun, Martha S. Linet, James R. Cerhan, Christopher A. Haiman, and David Schottenfeld

Print publication date: 2017

Print ISBN-13: 9780190238667

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: December 2017

DOI: 10.1093/oso/9780190238667.001.0001

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PRINTED FROM OXFORD SCHOLARSHIP ONLINE (oxford.universitypressscholarship.com). (c) Copyright Oxford University Press, 2021. All Rights Reserved. An individual user may print out a PDF of a single chapter of a monograph in OSO for personal use. date: 17 October 2021

Breast Cancer

Breast Cancer

(p.861) 45 Breast Cancer
Cancer Epidemiology and Prevention

Louise A. Brinton

Mia M. Gaudet

Gretchen L. Gierach

Oxford University Press

Breast cancer is the most frequently diagnosed cancer in women worldwide, with annual estimates of 1.7 million newly diagnosed cases and 522,000 deaths. Although more breast cancers are diagnosed in economically developed than in developing countries, the reverse is true for mortality, reflecting limited screening and less effective treatments in the latter. Breast cancer incidence has been on the rise in the United States for many years, but in recent years this is restricted to certain subgroups, while internationally there have been continued generalized increases, likely reflecting adoption of more Westernized lifestyles. Breast cancer is widely recognized as being hormonally influenced, with most of the established risk factors believed to reflect the influence of cumulative exposure of the breast to stimulatory effects of ovarian hormones—leading to increased cellular proliferation, which in turn can result in genetic errors during cell division.

Keywords:   breast cancer, hormones, ovary, genetic, cell division

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