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Cancer Epidemiology and Prevention$
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Michael Thun, Martha S. Linet, James R. Cerhan, Christopher A. Haiman, and David Schottenfeld

Print publication date: 2017

Print ISBN-13: 9780190238667

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: December 2017

DOI: 10.1093/oso/9780190238667.001.0001

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PRINTED FROM OXFORD SCHOLARSHIP ONLINE (oxford.universitypressscholarship.com). (c) Copyright Oxford University Press, 2021. All Rights Reserved. An individual user may print out a PDF of a single chapter of a monograph in OSO for personal use. date: 19 October 2021

Cervical Cancer

Cervical Cancer

(p.925) 48 Cervical Cancer
Cancer Epidemiology and Prevention

Rolando Herrero

Raul Murillo

Oxford University Press

Cervical cancer is the fourth most common cancer in women worldwide, with more than 500,000 cases and 250,000 deaths per year. The disease is characterized by marked regional differences, with more than 80% of the cases and deaths occurring in developing countries. The etiology and natural history of the disease are very well studied, with persistent infection with one of thirteen human papillomavirus (HPV) types now considered to be a necessary cause. The molecular mechanisms have also been elucidated and are mediated mainly by the expression of viral oncogenes that interfere with cellular pathways. The two most common HPV types, namely HPV-16 and HPV-18, are associated with about 70% of all cases around the world. Immunologic (e.g., HIV infection), hormonal (e.g., high parity), environmental (e.g., smoking), and genetic (e.g., HLA type) cofactors determine the risk of persistence and cancer among women harboring HPV infection.

Keywords:   cervical cancer, human papillomavirus, HPV, oncogene, cervix, risk, etiology

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