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Cancer Epidemiology and Prevention$
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Michael Thun, Martha S. Linet, James R. Cerhan, Christopher A. Haiman, and David Schottenfeld

Print publication date: 2017

Print ISBN-13: 9780190238667

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: December 2017

DOI: 10.1093/oso/9780190238667.001.0001

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PRINTED FROM OXFORD SCHOLARSHIP ONLINE (oxford.universitypressscholarship.com). (c) Copyright Oxford University Press, 2021. All Rights Reserved. An individual user may print out a PDF of a single chapter of a monograph in OSO for personal use. date: 19 October 2021

Prostate Cancer

Prostate Cancer

(p.997) 53 Prostate Cancer
Cancer Epidemiology and Prevention

Catherine M. Tangen

Marian L. Neuhouser

Janet L. Stanford

Oxford University Press

Prostate cancer is the most common solid tumor and the second leading cause of cancer-related mortality in American men. Worldwide, prostate cancer ranks second and fifth as a cause of cancer and cancer deaths, respectively. Despite the international burden of disease due to prostate cancer, its etiology is unclear in most cases. Established risk factors include age, race/ancestry, and family history of the disease. Prostate cancer has a strong heritable component, and genome-wide association studies have identified over 110 common risk-associated genetic variants. Family-based sequencing studies have also found rare mutations (e.g., HOXB13) that contribute to prostate cancer susceptibility. Numerous environmental and lifestyle factors (e.g., obesity, diet) have been examined in relation to prostate cancer incidence, but few modifiable exposures have been consistently associated with risk. Some of the variability in results may be related to etiological heterogeneity, with different causes underlying the development of distinct disease subgroups.

Keywords:   prostate cancer, genetic susceptibility, genome-wide association studies, molecular subtypes, Gleason grade, prostate-specific antigen, androgens, dietary intake, chemoprevention

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