This chapter provides a broad overview of governmental regulatory approaches to controlling exposure to carcinogens in air, water, food, drugs, and other consumer products. It covers general principles and approaches and the increasing emphasis on in vitro high-throughput testing to screen chemicals for potential toxicity. It focuses specifically on statutes related to the United States, while giving lesser coverage to approaches in Europe. The focus is at the federal level, even though states may also promulgate regulations. Although epidemiologic evidence and animal testing have historically provided the basis for regulations to limit exposure to environmental carcinogens, it is hoped that alternative testing methods that use high-throughput in vitro screening will accelerate testing of unregulated chemicals and limit reliance on animal bioassays.
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