This chapter identifies the rationale behind this volume: the enduring controversy over how to theorize language-mixing strategies. Relating this controversy to discrepancies in the conceptualization and treatment of the data of language mixing, it outlines a method to distinguish among other-language phenomena based on spontaneous bilingual performance, quantitative analysis, and rigorous standards of proof. It justifies the focus on the three quantitatively predominant manifestations of language mixing: nonce borrowing, lexical retrieval of previously borrowed words and code-switching. It introduces and defines integration, the major tool in characterizing language-mixing types. Ensuing chapters identify and illustrate an array of integration strategies, whereby the vast majority of lone other-language items are adapted to the morphological and syntactic patterns of a recipient language, in a variety of language pairs.
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