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Who Should Rule?Men of Arms, the Republic of Letters, and the Fall of the Spanish Empire$
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Mónica Ricketts

Print publication date: 2017

Print ISBN-13: 9780190494889

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: August 2017

DOI: 10.1093/oso/9780190494889.001.0001

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PRINTED FROM OXFORD SCHOLARSHIP ONLINE (oxford.universitypressscholarship.com). (c) Copyright Oxford University Press, 2021. All Rights Reserved. An individual user may print out a PDF of a single chapter of a monograph in OSO for personal use. date: 24 September 2021

Pens, Politics, and Swords

Pens, Politics, and Swords

A Path to Pervasive Unrest, 1820–1830

(p.171) 7 Pens, Politics, and Swords
Who Should Rule?

Mónica Ricketts

Oxford University Press

The final chapter discusses in parallel the political histories of Spain and Peru in the final years of imperial rule in South America. Peru did not experience a long national struggle and lacked large elites committed to independence. As in the old metropolis, a constant and violent struggle between men of letters and military officers dominated. After decades of military reform and war, army officers with experience in command and government felt entitled to rule. Old subjects and new citizens were also accustomed to seeing them lead. Men of letters, on the other hand, found limited opportunities to exercise their new authority despite their ambitions. Additionally, both in Spain and Peru, liberal men of letters failed to create a new institutional order in which the military would be subjected to civilian rule. It would take decades for both parts of the former Spanish monarchy to accomplish that goal and allow for peace.

Keywords:   Trienio liberal, pronunciamientos, Rafael de Riego, Trágala, independence of Peru, José de San Martín, Simón Bolívar, Clararrosa

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