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An African American DilemmaA History of School Integration and Civil Rights in the North$
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Zoë Burkholder

Print publication date: 2021

Print ISBN-13: 9780190605131

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: July 2021

DOI: 10.1093/oso/9780190605131.001.0001

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PRINTED FROM OXFORD SCHOLARSHIP ONLINE (oxford.universitypressscholarship.com). (c) Copyright Oxford University Press, 2021. All Rights Reserved. An individual user may print out a PDF of a single chapter of a monograph in OSO for personal use. date: 29 November 2021

The Education That Is Their Due

The Education That Is Their Due

Separation for Racial Uplift, 1900–1940

(p.46) 2 The Education That Is Their Due
An African American Dilemma

Zoë Burkholder

Oxford University Press

Chapter 2 identifies a distinct uptick in northern Black support for separate schools. The rise of scientific racism fueled anti-Black discrimination that accelerated alongside the first Great Migration and the Great Depression. Hostile whites segregated classrooms and buildings in defiance of state law as Black populations increased. At the same time, there is compelling evidence from New Jersey, New York, Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, and Michigan that Black families either passively accepted or actively requested separate classrooms and schools in order to access Black teachers. Many Black northerners believed separate schools would offer a higher quality education and more of the teaching and administrative jobs that sustained the Black middle class. Still, this position was far from universal, and many northern Black communities energetically resisted school segregation. A growing number of Black intellectuals and civil rights activists vehemently objected to any form of state-sponsored segregation and campaigned actively for school integration.

Keywords:   Great Migration, Philadelphia, Dayton, W. E. B. Du Bois, Jim Crow, Black teachers, separate schools, integration, Cheyney Training School for Teachers, NAACP

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