Jump to ContentJump to Main Navigation
An African American Dilemma – A History of School Integration and Civil Rights in the North - Oxford Scholarship Online
Users without a subscription are not able to see the full content.

An African American Dilemma: A History of School Integration and Civil Rights in the North

Zoë Burkholder


Since Brown v. Board of Education in 1954, Americans have viewed school integration as a central tenet of the Black civil rights movement. Yet school integration was not the only—or even always the dominant—civil rights strategy. At times, African Americans also fought for separate, Black-controlled schools dedicated to racial uplift, community empowerment, and self-determination. An African American Dilemma offers a social history of debates over school integration within northern Black communities from the 1840s to the present. This broad geographical and temporal focus reveals that northern ... More

Keywords: school integration, school desegregation, separate schools, civil rights history, Black, African American, educational activism, civil rights in the North, Black freedom struggle, educational reform

Bibliographic Information

Print publication date: 2021 Print ISBN-13: 9780190605131
Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: July 2021 DOI:10.1093/oso/9780190605131.001.0001


Affiliations are at time of print publication.

Zoë Burkholder, author
Professor of Educational Foundations, Montclair State University

Show Summary Details

subscribe or login to access all content.