This chapter advocates the development of comparative organizational research designs as the empirical basis for studying both the generic and contingent processes that generate inequality. After explaining where past quantitative and qualitative researchers have gone wrong, it goes on to examine and promote contemporary comparative organizational research designs. Two in-depth case studies highlight the intersection between a relational inequality theoretical approach and comparative organizational research designs. The first examines organizational variation quantitatively, highlighting the roles of categorical intersectionality, organizational practices, and US and Australian national political economic institutions in expanding and contracting workplace class inequalities. The second focuses on three qualitative case studies of claims-making over surgical training regimes, highlighting the role of institutionalized power, gendered struggles, and cultural framing in contestation over status and divisions of labor. Finally, the chapter examines the potential of comparative meta-analyses across existing single-organization case studies for generating generic theories about relational inequalities.
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