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Evolution and BiogeographyVolume 8$
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Martin Thiel and Gary Poore

Print publication date: 2020

Print ISBN-13: 9780190637842

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: January 2021

DOI: 10.1093/oso/9780190637842.001.0001

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PRINTED FROM OXFORD SCHOLARSHIP ONLINE (oxford.universitypressscholarship.com). (c) Copyright Oxford University Press, 2021. All Rights Reserved. An individual user may print out a PDF of a single chapter of a monograph in OSO for personal use. date: 13 June 2021

Colonization, Adaptation, Radiation, and Diversity in Fresh Water

Colonization, Adaptation, Radiation, and Diversity in Fresh Water

(p.303) 12 Colonization, Adaptation, Radiation, and Diversity in Fresh Water
Evolution and Biogeography

Shane T. Ahyong

Chao Huang

Oxford University Press

About 12,000 of the 67,000 described species of crustaceans occur in fresh water. Crustaceans have colonized almost every type of freshwater environment in most parts of all continents. A common theme in marine-to-freshwater transitions is not only acquisition of osmoregulatory capabilities to cope with hyposalinity, but also optimizing reproductive strategies to cope with ecological and environmental variability. A key reproductive adaptation for fresh water is direct rather than extended planktonic development. Some groups, such as peracarids, were preadapted, already having direct development, whereas others, such as decapods, had to acquire it. Other crustaceans, such as branchiopods, are adapted not only to hyposalinity (and hypersalinity) but also to surviving in transient waters. Crustaceans have been colonizing fresh waters since the Middle Cambrian to Early Ordovician and have independently adapted to life in inland waters many times throughout geological history. The pattern and timing of invasions has shaped present-day distributions. Contemporary distributions and diversity of crustaceans in surface waters are surveyed in the context of their paleohistory. Different groups of crustaceans have very different current distributions that reflect the differential influence of different patterns of colonization, geological history, ecology, and the constraints (or benefits) of their evolutionary heritage.

Keywords:   Freshwater crustaceans, crustacean radiation, freshwater adaptation, freshwater habitat colonization, evolutionary heritage

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