Self-efficacy, a task-, time-, and situation-specific form of self-confidence, is an important cognition that often drives behavior, provided people possess the physical capabilities and value the behavior in question. The purpose of this chapter is to provide an overview self-efficacy theory by discussing the common antecedents, correlates, and outcomes of self-efficacy. Examples specific to disability and exercise are also offered to illustrate empirical findings. Research using self-efficacy to examine physical activity (PA) is then reviewed and summarized, along with noting the limitations of the empirical literature. For instance, various forms of self-efficacy such as scheduling, task, exercise, self-regulatory, and wheelchair efficacy have been linked to PA engagement and predicted small to substantial amounts of variance. The chapter concludes with suggestions for future research, such as investigating whether all of the six self-efficacy antecedents are related to self-efficacy, and how a particular disability type might moderate relationships among self-efficacy antecedents, self-efficacy, and exercise.
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