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Handbook of Disability Sport and Exercise Psychology$
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Jeffrey J. Martin

Print publication date: 2017

Print ISBN-13: 9780190638054

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: October 2017

DOI: 10.1093/oso/9780190638054.001.0001

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Gender and Ethnicity

Gender and Ethnicity

(p.419) 39 Gender and Ethnicity
Handbook of Disability Sport and Exercise Psychology

Jeffrey J. Martin

Oxford University Press

Gender and ethnicity have played large roles throughout the history of able-bodied sport and in disability sport they are important considerations for understanding engagement in sport and exercise. This chapter discusses the interactions among gender, disability, ethnicity, socioeconomic status, sexuality, and other myriad factors. For heuristic and empirical purposes sport-related gender and ethnic issues are discussed separately from exercise-related issues. One example of gender and ethnic discriminatory attitudes and how one athlete and her support team overcame them is presented through the case of a Malaysian powerlifting Paralympian. In terms of exercise, women with disabilities often feel vulnerable because of their disability so exercise behavior is curtailed. Muslim women sometimes have to reschedule exercise and sport from daylight to nighttime in order to reduce how much they are observed being active. At the same time, acculturation processes in the United States may override religious influences for some Arab Americans.

Keywords:   gender, ethnicity, disability, religion, Arab American, sport and exercise, discriminatory attitudes, sexuality

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