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Constitutional AmendmentsMaking, Breaking, and Changing Constitutions$
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Richard Albert

Print publication date: 2019

Print ISBN-13: 9780190640484

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: October 2019

DOI: 10.1093/oso/9780190640484.001.0001

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Finding Constitutional Amendments

Finding Constitutional Amendments

Chapter:
(p.229) 6 Finding Constitutional Amendments
Source:
Constitutional Amendments
Author(s):

Richard Albert

Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:10.1093/oso/9780190640484.003.0007

Constitutional designers rarely ask many questions they should. How and where will the constitution indicate that it has been amended? Will it record the change at the end of the original constitution, or will the change be inserted directly into the founding text? And what about an uncodified constitution: How will it identify constitution-level changes? This chapter offers the first analysis into the options available to constitutional designers for codifying constitutional amendments. This chapter identifies and illustrates the four major models of amendment codification in the world: the appendative model in the United States, the integrative model in India, the invisible model in Ireland, and the disaggregative model in Great Britain. How and where to memorialize changes to the constitution entails implications for how interpreters of constitutional meaning will read the constitution in the course of adjudication, whether the constitution will become a focal point of reference in constitutional politics, and how intensely citizens will venerate their constitution. The way amendments are recorded is ultimately a choice about how and indeed whether a people chooses to remember its past. Today constitutional designers do not consider the consequences of amendment codification, but they should. This chapter explains why the choices involved in amendment codification concern more than mere aesthetics. This chapter considers constitutions from Canada, Great Britain, India, Ireland, Israel, Mexico, New Zealand, Norway, Saint Lucia, Spain, and the United States.

Keywords:   amendment, authority, codification, constitutional amendment, constitutional convention, constitutional veneration, formal amendment, Fourteenth Amendment, uncodified constitution, unwritten constitution

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