This chapter describes various biological hazards and their impact on workers and others. A major focus of the chapter is biological hazards in healthcare and laboratory settings, including exposure to bloodborne pathogens and prevention of diseases related to them. Sections deal with sharps injuries, HIV/AIDS, hepatitis B virus, hepatitis C virus, tuberculosis, and other infectious diseases that can be acquired in the work environment via direct contact, droplet or airborne spread, or fecal-oral transmission. In addition, infectious agents spread by animal contact or arthropod vectors in a broad range of settings will be addressed. Newly emerging infectious or re-emerging infections, such as those due to H5N1 and novel H1N1 influenza, Middle Eastern respiratory syndrome (MERS), and Ebola Virus Disease (EVD) as well as agents associated with bioterrorism are discussed.
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