This chapter describes sources of stress in the work environment, their adverse effects on the health of workers, and how they are influenced by economic globalization, political systems, laws, government policies, and the changing labor market. Models of occupational stress, in particular job strain and effort-reward imbalance, are presented. Additional occupational stressors are described, including long work hours, shift work, precarious work and job insecurity, work-family conflict and organizational injustice, including discrimination, harassment, and bullying. The health and safety consequences of exposure to occupational stressors are detailed, including musculoskeletal disorders, acute traumatic injuries, mental disorders (such as depression), health behaviors, and cardiovascular disease and its risk factors (including hypertension, obesity, diabetes, and the metabolic syndrome). Finally, there is a discussion of efforts on work reorganization and job redesign, workplace policies and programs, and laws and regulations designed to reduce occupational stress and improve the health and safety of workers.
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