This chapter describes water contamination and wastewater treatment. It reviews the current state of water availability and water quality globally. It describes types of surface water contaminants including metals such as lead, arsenic and mercury, pesticides such as atrazine, industrial chemicals including PCBs and PBDEs, and pathogens such as E. coli and Cryptosporidium. Sources of water pollutants and their effects on humans and the environment are also discussed. Environmental Protection Agency approaches to managing surface water quality under the Clean Water Act and Safe Drinking Water Act are presented as are descriptions of operational approaches to drinking water and wastewater treatment. New approaches to managing water pollution, including source control and pollution prevention, are presented and challenges to the management of water quality, such as climate change, are discussed.
Keywords: water contamination, heavy metals, pesticides, pathogens, industrial chemicals, Environmental Protection Agency, Clean Water Act, Safe Drinking Water Act, exposure reduction, source control, pollution prevention, wastewater treatment
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