This chapter describes the clinical presentation of commonly-encountered occupational and environmental respiratory disorders, including principles regarding disease recognition and prevention. Where appropriate, clinical cases are included to illustrate specific diseases. The chapter begins with a general introduction to the evaluation of individuals and populations, including important considerations from the history and physical examination as well as common findings on typical diagnostic tests such as chest X-rays and other imaging studies, and pulmonary function testing. Specific disease topics covered include (a) disorders due to irritant exposures (high-, moderate-, and low-solubility irritants); (b) disorders due to nonirritant exposures (carbon monoxide and indoor and ambient air pollution); (c) occupational airways diseases (work-related asthma and occupational chronic obstructive pulmonary disease); (d) hypersensitivity pneumonitis, byssinosis, and other diseases due to organic dust exposure; and (e) pneumoconiosis (including asbestosis, silicosis, and coal workers’ pneuconiosis). Childhood asthma is discussed as a risk factor for occupationally-related lung disease.
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