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Occupational and Environmental Health$
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Barry S. Levy, David H. Wegman, Sherry L. Baron, and Rosemary K. Sokas

Print publication date: 2017

Print ISBN-13: 9780190662677

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: November 2017

DOI: 10.1093/oso/9780190662677.001.0001

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PRINTED FROM OXFORD SCHOLARSHIP ONLINE (oxford.universitypressscholarship.com). (c) Copyright Oxford University Press, 2020. All Rights Reserved. An individual user may print out a PDF of a single chapter of a monograph in OSO for personal use. date: 26 November 2020

Toxicology

Toxicology

Chapter:
(p.115) 7 Toxicology
Source:
Occupational and Environmental Health
Author(s):

Robert Laumbach

Michael Gochfeld

Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:10.1093/oso/9780190662677.003.0007

This chapter describes the basic principles of toxicology and their application to occupational and environmental health. Topics covered include pathways that toxic substances may take from sources in the environment to molecular targets in the cells of the body where toxic effects occur. These pathways include routes of exposure, absorption into the body, distribution to organs and tissues, metabolism, storage, and excretion. The various types of toxicological endpoints are discussed, along with the concepts of dose-response relationships, threshold doses, and the basis of interindividual differences and interspecies differences in response to exposure to toxic substances. The diversity of cellular and molecular mechanisms of toxicity, including enzyme induction and inhibition, oxidative stress, mutagenesis, carcinogenesis, and teratogenesis, are discussed and the chapter concludes with examples of practical applications in clinical evaluation and in toxicity testing.

Keywords:   toxicology, toxic substances, absorption, metabolism, storage, excretion, dose-response relationships, interspecies differences, interindividual differences, molecular mechanisms

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