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Bullying, School Violence, and Climate in Evolving ContextsCulture, Organization, and Time$
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Ron Avi Astor and Rami Benbenisthty

Print publication date: 2018

Print ISBN-13: 9780190663049

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: December 2018

DOI: 10.1093/oso/9780190663049.001.0001

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PRINTED FROM OXFORD SCHOLARSHIP ONLINE (oxford.universitypressscholarship.com). (c) Copyright Oxford University Press, 2021. All Rights Reserved. An individual user may print out a PDF of a single chapter of a monograph in OSO for personal use. date: 28 July 2021

A Heuristic Model of School Violence and Bullying in Evolving Nested Contexts

A Heuristic Model of School Violence and Bullying in Evolving Nested Contexts

(p.14) Chapter 2 A Heuristic Model of School Violence and Bullying in Evolving Nested Contexts
Bullying, School Violence, and Climate in Evolving Contexts

Ron Avi Astor

Rami Benbenishty

Oxford University Press

This chapter presents an integrated ecological theoretical model of school violence in evolving and nested contexts. In contrast to other models that put the student in the center, this heuristic model puts the school in the center of nested contexts, such as the student body, family, community, and culture. The school is also embedded in a hierarchical organizational structure, being part of a district, county, state, and country that also affect the school. All these outside contexts overflow into the school and influence internal school violence and safety. The school’s internal context, including the school organization and climate, moderates and mediates outside influences and helps shape the students’ experiences, perceptions, emotions, and behaviors Finally, the model suggests that school violence, bullying, safety, and student outcomes are dynamic and ever evolving, reflecting changes in norms and contexts. The dynamics of the school context impact all the external ecological layers as well.

Keywords:   school violence, bullying, school context, organizational climate, safety

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