Patterns and Interrelationships of Behaviors
This chapter examines the definitions of bullying and school violence, suggesting that the use of the term “bullying” needs to be more specific and concrete, referring to behaviors that are intended to cause social, physical, emotional, sexual, or property damage. The chapter presents a wide range of victimization types that vary widely in terms of their prevalence in schools, their nature, and the severity of their impact on victims. It presents factor analyses that examine the relationships among different types of behaviors and reveal six distinct yet interrelated categories: verbal (e.g., humiliating), physical (e.g., pushing and shoving), threats, indirect social (e.g., spreading mean rumors), sexual, and cyber. Additionally, the chapter uses latent class analysis to examine how different groups of students experience multiple types of bullying and school victimization. Four groups (classes) were identified, each with a different profile of student background characteristics.
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