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Epidemiology by DesignA Causal Approach to the Health Sciences$
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Daniel Westreich

Print publication date: 2019

Print ISBN-13: 9780190665760

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: December 2019

DOI: 10.1093/oso/9780190665760.001.0001

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PRINTED FROM OXFORD SCHOLARSHIP ONLINE (oxford.universitypressscholarship.com). (c) Copyright Oxford University Press, 2021. All Rights Reserved. An individual user may print out a PDF of a single chapter of a monograph in OSO for personal use. date: 23 July 2021

Measures of Association

Measures of Association

(p.27) 2 Measures of Association
Epidemiology by Design

Daniel Westreich

Oxford University Press

This chapter discusses the measures of contrast between two groups within the study population. Whereas in Chapter 1 the researcher might describe the total number of cases of a disease in a large population as a whole, in this chapter the researcher is interested in (for example) contrasting risk among those exposed to a drug and those unexposed to that drug within a larger population. In this chapter, the author primarily focuses on difference and ratio measures. This chapter introduces the 2 × 2 table, a widely used tool for learning epidemiologic methods. The author also discusses how to communicate these findings for researchers, policy makers, clinicians, and patients, all of whom may need to make decisions based on these data.

Keywords:   association, risk difference, risk ratio, odds ratio, incidence rate difference, incidence rate ratio

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