In Chapter 5, the author describes randomized trials. The chapter gives a broad overview of types of trials and the steps in conducting a trial and also describes how trials meet (and fail to meet) core causal identification conditions. The author provides a brief introduction to the analysis of randomized trial data. As well, the chapter introduces factorial trials as well as subgroup analysis of trials as a way of explaining differences between causal interaction and effect measure modification. Finally, the author describes issues in the generalizability and transportability of trials and quantitative approaches to these issues.
Keywords: randomized trials, blinding, subgroup analysis, factorial trials, Kaplan-Meier curves, internal validity, external validity, intention-to-treat, compliance-corrected analysis, lost to follow-up
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