In contrast to an observational cohort study in which participants are identified, exposures are measured, and then outcomes status is measured after follow-up, a case-control study is an observational study in which researchers sample participants based on their outcome status, often only after all outcomes have already occurred. This chapter echoes the structure of the previous two chapters in the discussion of case-control studies. In this chapter, the author’s focus is on understanding the relationship between cohort studies and case-control studies and on how the interpretation of the odds ratio estimated from the case-control study depends on the relationship of the case-control study to a cohort study.
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